2021-03-12 阿煌看什么 20608

MEXICO CITY — Lawmakers in Mexico approved a bill Wednesday night to legalize recreational marijuana, a milestone for the country, which is in the throes of a drug war and could become the world’s largest cannabis market, leaving the United States between two pot-selling neighbors.


The 316-to-129 vote in Mexico’s lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, came more than two years after the Mexican Supreme Court ruled that the country’s ban on recreational marijuana was unconstitutional and more than three years after the country legalized medicinal cannabis.

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The chamber approved the bill in general terms Wednesday evening before moving on to a lengthy discussion of possible revisions introduced by individual lawmakers. In its final form, though, the measure is widely expected to sail through the Senate before being sent to President Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who has signaled support for legalization.


The measure, as of Wednesday night, would allow adults to smoke marijuana and, with a permit, grow a small number of cannabis plants at home. It would also grant licenses for producers — from small farmers to commercial growers — to cultivate and sell the crop.


“Today we are in a historic moment,” said Simey Olvera, a lawmaker with the governing Morena party. “With this, the false belief that cannabis is part of Mexico’s serious public health problems is left behind.”

执政党莫雷纳党议员西米 · 奥尔维拉说“今天,我们正处在一个历史性时刻。这样一来,那些认为大麻是墨西哥严重公共卫生问题一部分的错误观点就不复存在了。”

If enacted, Mexico would join Canada and Uruguay in a small but growing list of countries that have legalized marijuana in the Americas, adding further momentum to the legalization movement in the region. In the United States, Democrats in the Senate have also promised to scrap federal prohibition of the drug this year.


For “Mexico, given its size and its worldwide reputation for being damaged by the drug war, to take this step is enormously significant,” said John Walsh, director of drug policy for the Washington Office on Latin America, a U.S. advocacy group. “North America is heading toward legalization.”

美国倡导组织华盛顿拉丁美洲办公室的毒品政策主任约翰 · 沃尔什说“墨西哥来说,考虑到它的规模,以及它在世界范围内因毒品战争而受损的声誉,采取这一步骤意义重大。北美也正走向合法化。”

In Mexico, however, the bill has proved divisive.

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Critics say it is unlikely to make a serious dent in Mexico’s soaring rates of cartel-fueled violence, and argue that it is unwelcome in a country where nearly two-thirds of people oppose legalizing marijuana, according to recent polling.

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“It’s a political fad,” said Damián Zepeda Vidales, a senator with the opposition National Action Party and one of the bill’s most vocal detractors. “It’s a matter for politicians, for an elite that’s now empowered in Congress and in government that wants to impose a way of life on society.”

反对党国家行动党参议员达米安 · 塞佩达 · 维达莱斯说,“这只是一种政治风潮。”维达莱斯是该法案最强烈的批评者之一。“这是政客们的事,是国会和政府授权的精英们的事,他们想把一种生活方式强加于社会。”

Security experts agree that the law’s practical impact on violence will likely be minimal: With 15 American states having now legalized marijuana, they argue, the crop has become a relatively small part of the Mexican drug trafficking business, with cartels focusing on more profitable products like fentanyl and methamphetamines.

安全专家一致认为,该法律对暴力的实际影响可能微乎其微: 他们认为,随着美国15个州现在已经使大麻合法化,大麻作物已经成为墨西哥非法毒品贸易业务中相对较小的一部分,贩毒集团专注于更有利可图的产品,如芬太尼和甲基苯丙胺。

“We shouldn’t overestimate the power of this bill,” said Falko Ernst, senior Mexico analyst for the International Crisis Group, a global research organization. The bill will not “substantially change the dynamics and drivers of lethal conflict in Mexico.”

全球研究机构国际危机组织的高级墨西哥分析师法尔科 · 恩斯特说,“我们不应该高估这项法案的影响力。”。该法案不会“从根本上改变墨西哥致命冲突的动态和驱动因素”
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Proponents of legalizing marijuana contend that the bill is too limited in scope, even if it represents a symbolic breakthrough in the push to end a drug war that has cost an estimated 150,000 lives, according to the Council on Foreign Relations.


Legalization “is an important step toward building peace in a country like ours, where for at least a decade or more, we’ve been immersed in an absurd war,” said Lucía Riojas Martínez, a Mexican congresswoman who made headlines in 2019 when she gave a rolled joint to the country’s interior minister, Olga Sánchez Cordero, after delivering a speech in Congress.

合法化“是在像我们这样的国家建设和平的重要一步,至少十年或更长时间以来,我们一直陷入于一场荒谬的战争之中,”墨西哥国会女议员露西亚 · 里奥哈斯 · 马丁内斯说。2019年,她在国会发表演讲后,把一根卷好的大麻烟递给内政部长奥尔加 · 桑切斯 · 科尔德罗,成为了媒体关注的焦点。

“But this bill falls short of achieving that,” she added.


It is also unclear how much the law will benefit Mexico’s poor farmers, who have grown marijuana for decades and often end up in the middle of conflicts between warring drug trafficking groups.

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The bill mandates that small farmers and Indigenous people be given priority in licensing, but stipulates only that these vulnerable groups can be granted more than one license.


And without additional state policies to tackle organized crime, particularly in areas where marijuana is grown, said Mr. Ernst, such well-intentioned requirements may not have a meaningful impact for farmers in the regions controlled by cartels.

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“For most areas where you have these high-conflict settings,” said Mr. Ernst, there are not enough state resources to truly take on organized crime groups.

恩斯特先生说: “在大多数冲突频发的地区,没有足够的国家资源来真正打击有组织的犯罪集团。”

But many entrepreneurs, at least, are seeing green.


With more than 120 million people, Mexico would represent the largest marijuana market in the world by population. The crop could become big business in Mexico, a potential financial lift for an economy badly battered by the coronavirus crisis.


“It’s an excellent economic, natural, ethical and moral solution for a country in need,” said Juan Sánchez Mejorada, chief executive of Ceres Soluciones, a medicinal cannabis company.

药用大麻公司的首席执行官胡安 · 桑切斯 · 梅乔拉达说,“对于一个需要帮助的国家来说,这是一个极好的经济、自然、伦理和道德解决方案。”
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“Doing this right could give Mexico an economic surplus,” he said.

他表示: “做好这一点,可能会给墨西哥带来经济盈余。”

This kind of fervor makes pro-marijuana activists nervous.


“It’s a law for the rich, and marijuana should be for everybody,” said Ivania Medina Rodríguez, 18, a local activist. “They’re going for business before rights.”

18岁的当地活动人士伊万尼亚 · 梅迪纳 · 罗德里格斯说,“这是面向富人的法律,大麻应该对每个人都适用。他们重商轻权。”

Dressed as a giant cannabis leaf, Ms. Medina was attending a protest last year that began at a small marijuana plantation outside the Senate offices in Mexico City, where locals now regularly come to smoke pot while the police turn a blind eye.


Some activists fear that the law will overly favor large corporations that could obtain what the bill terms an “integral license,” giving them access to the entire marijuana supply chain, from seed to sale, while leaving small-scale producers and vendors locked out of the lucrative market.


The bill in Mexico would allow individual users to carry up to 28 grams of marijuana and grow six cannabis plants at home. Cannabis could also be purchased by adults over 18 at authorized businesses, and grown at larger scale by licensed groups. Medical marijuana, which Mexico legalized in 2017, would be regulated separately by the health ministry, which published rules in January covering the growing and research of medicinal cannabis.

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Local advocates say the restrictions on possession will limit the bill’s impact, particularly for low-income consumers, who may fall prey to extortion from the police, a regular occurrence in Mexico.

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“We live in a country where corruption and extortion is the norm,” said Zara Snapp, co-founder of the RIA Institute, a Mexico-city based drug policy research and advocacy group.

位于墨西哥城的毒品政策研究和倡导组织 RIA 研究所的联合创始人扎拉 · 斯纳普说“我们生活在一个以腐败和敲诈勒索为常态的国家。”

Still, for many proponents in Mexico, approving the bill is a notable step in the long journey toward full legalization.


“It’s like when you’re running a marathon and you haven’t started,” said Mr. Sánchez, the marijuana businessman. “It means firing the starting gun, even if we still have 42 kilometers left to go.”


Cartels have already moved on to Avocados anyway.


They really did move on to avocados. (and many other fruits and veggies.) American fields be full of big fancy machines no one is allowed to repair, and Mexican fields be full of machine guns in towers.


So both are being held hostage, one by force and the other by economics?


Meaning forced/slave labor???

意思是强迫/奴役劳动? ? ?

In some areas yes. Mostly forcing Avocado growers to pay them a "fee" to be able to grow their Avocadoes without problems.


I'm thinking they've already been in that industry a long time...


Jesus christ, I swear I read this everytime someone posts something about narcos.
Yes, they took over some of the avocado market, no that's not their main source of income. You guys act like narcos are about to stop selling drugs and start shipping avocados. That's not the case.


They are like Fortune 500 companies. They do everything now. Like the mafia.


Gotta diversify, y'know?


They have moved onto anything and everything.


Millennials are the real victims in all this. RIP avocado toast.


I swear I read this headline at least twice a week


It began as a Supreme Court ruling, made its way to Senate for legislative shaping, went down to The House (sort of equivalent) for revisions. They made a few and approved it; I'm not sure if it goes back to Senate for ratification. There's been a few setbacks as far as dates, but overall it's moved swiftly considering what we're talking about here.

最初是最高法院的一项裁决,然后送到参议院进行立法规划,最后送到众议院进行修改。他们制定了一些并批准了它; 我不确定它是否会送回参议院批准。就日期而言,还有一些挫折,但总的来说,考虑到我们在这里谈论的内容,这些进展很快。

Also, consider that marihuana has been (1) de-criminalized for medical use, then (2) legalized for medical use, then (3) de-criminalized for recreational use, and now it’s in the process of (4) becoming legalized for recreational use.
It’s been a very very long road, but if Mexico with all its red tape can do it, other countries can too.


I thing this will push the US to do so even quicker. They’ll want to compete with supply


The cartels must have probably finished investing/setting up recreational facilities in marijuana and so will now let it be legalized
...same deal with pharmaceutical/tobacco companies in the US

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I hope this will make cartels in Mexico relax a little


nah, they've still got cocaine and avocados

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Those 2 sound like we living in a weird dystopia


Are you calling my breakfast weird?


they are in tons of other businesses already, some "legal" like gas, politics, avocado, and very illegal others


Weed hasn't been profitable for the cartels for 20 years....they've moved on to coke, heroin, fentanyl, meth, pills etc.
In 2000/2001, I was buying 10 lbs of Sinaloas okayest weed at wholesale for $3,500-$3,750.
Now, I was buying the weed in dallas from the dopeman. He was probably buying them in 100+ pound blocks from a bigger dopeman in Houston who probably got them by the truck load from Mexico(likely a semitruck load from somewhere just north of the border)
The cartel was probably getting in the neighborhood of 250-300/# of weed wholesale, but they had to produce the goods, pay the drivers, pay the bribes and take all of the risk..
They were probably bringing in loads of thousands or tens of thousands of pounds, and likely making hundreds of thousands of dollars per shipment.
Now, once border restrictions tightened (9/11) they switched the game up. They had a harder time bringing in giant loads, so they started bringing drugs in smaller amounts (via backpacking and hiking, in passenger cars etc). OR instead of being able to get 10 trucks through in a day, they could only get 1. The bribes got too expensive for 1 truck load of weed (I.e. if you have to pay a 1m bribe, you need a product that will make you millions, not hundreds of K).
The 4.5 kilos(10#) of weed i was buying for $3,500 would've been well over $100k if it was cocaine.
Its a very simple math problem. If I can bring in 100 pounds of drugs, I'd rather make $1.25M vs $35k.
The legal market will be shit in Mexico. The average Jose doesn't earn enough to smoke it, and the wealthy class either already sells drugs or is very much against it.

墨西哥贩毒集团20年来都没有从大麻中获利... 他们转向了可卡因、海洛因、芬太尼、冰毒、药片等。

Weed hasn’t been profitable for the cartels for 20 years
Got a source on that?


Who knows though the government in this shitty country is pretty fucking stupid. I would be shocked if it was legalized soon.

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My sister had a high-school bf.
Her high-school bf had a brother.
My sister's bf's brother died of alcohol poisoning.
If I was a parent, my child abusing weed vs. abusing alcohol is a no-brainer.

如果我是家长,我的孩子滥用大麻 vs 滥用酒精是显而易见的。

A guy I knew died of alcohol poisoning. That's all you had to say. Not make it sound like a spook story you heard on the playground.


That was a needlessly roundabout way to say what you said.


It's basically what some U.S. states did but on a national level and minus the initiated ballot measures.
Other than Switzerland pretty much no other country out there has an equivalent to America's state-level initiated referendums, so you're probably not going to see that many countries legalize cannabis in the piecemeal way the USA currently is.


After the Supreme Court's ruling, they put up a deadline for April 30th of this year for the guidelines to be set and approved - so voting in the senate should make it official by april, but who knows when it will go into effect.


I’ve been reading it for like 10 years. And I’ve still never gotten good weed in Mexico.


Shitty weed is cartel weed. Good weed is from your friends. I have good friends.


Good weed is from America has been my experience.
Mexico is still better than Eastern Europe weed.


From the United States


The States always be meddling in other sovereign nations’ affairs


I vaguely remember there was a push for decriminalization quite a few years ago, not legalization, in the the Mexican legislature but pressure from the US government hampered it. This was well before the recent wave of legalization in US states.


And now we will cross the border for a better life in Mexico.


I think we should all take a moment to thank the real hero here, the United States of America.
After all, Mexico could not have become the world's largest market for marijuanna without America's barbaric and racist War on Drugs.
So thank you America! Keep exporting those "traditional values!"

所以,感谢美国! 继续输出这些“传统价值观”吧!