网友讨论:墨西哥即将大麻合法化,有望成为世界上最大的大麻市场
2021-03-12 阿煌看什么 20608
正文翻译

MEXICO CITY — Lawmakers in Mexico approved a bill Wednesday night to legalize recreational marijuana, a milestone for the country, which is in the throes of a drug war and could become the world’s largest cannabis market, leaving the United States between two pot-selling neighbors.

周三晚上,墨西哥议员通过了一项法案,将娱乐性大麻合法化。这对墨西哥来说是一个里程碑。墨西哥正处于毒品战争的阵痛之中,可能会成为全球最大的大麻市场,使美国陷入两个贩卖大麻的邻国之间。

The 316-to-129 vote in Mexico’s lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, came more than two years after the Mexican Supreme Court ruled that the country’s ban on recreational marijuana was unconstitutional and more than three years after the country legalized medicinal cannabis.

墨西哥下议院众议院以316票对129票通过,是在墨西哥最高法院裁定该国禁止娱乐性大麻违宪的两年多之后,也是在该国将药用大麻合法化的三年多之后。
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The chamber approved the bill in general terms Wednesday evening before moving on to a lengthy discussion of possible revisions introduced by individual lawmakers. In its final form, though, the measure is widely expected to sail through the Senate before being sent to President Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who has signaled support for legalization.

周三晚上,众议院大体上通过了这项法案,然后就个别立法者可能提出的修改意见进行了长时间的讨论。尽管如此,该法案的最终版本预计会在参议院顺利通过,然后提交给洛佩斯·奥布拉多尔总统,后者已经表示支持合法化。

The measure, as of Wednesday night, would allow adults to smoke marijuana and, with a permit, grow a small number of cannabis plants at home. It would also grant licenses for producers — from small farmers to commercial growers — to cultivate and sell the crop.

这项措施,从周三晚上开始,将允许成年人吸食大麻,并允许他们在家里种植少量的大麻植物。它还将向从小农户到商业种植户的生产商颁发种植和销售这种作物的许可证。

“Today we are in a historic moment,” said Simey Olvera, a lawmaker with the governing Morena party. “With this, the false belief that cannabis is part of Mexico’s serious public health problems is left behind.”

执政党莫雷纳党议员西米 · 奥尔维拉说“今天,我们正处在一个历史性时刻。这样一来,那些认为大麻是墨西哥严重公共卫生问题一部分的错误观点就不复存在了。”

If enacted, Mexico would join Canada and Uruguay in a small but growing list of countries that have legalized marijuana in the Americas, adding further momentum to the legalization movement in the region. In the United States, Democrats in the Senate have also promised to scrap federal prohibition of the drug this year.

如果获得通过,墨西哥将加入加拿大和乌拉圭的行列,成为在美洲合法化大麻的国家之一,这个名单虽然不多,但正在不断扩大,进一步推动了该地区的大麻合法化运动。在美国,参议院的民主党人也承诺今年废除联邦政府对大麻的禁令。

For “Mexico, given its size and its worldwide reputation for being damaged by the drug war, to take this step is enormously significant,” said John Walsh, director of drug policy for the Washington Office on Latin America, a U.S. advocacy group. “North America is heading toward legalization.”

美国倡导组织华盛顿拉丁美洲办公室的毒品政策主任约翰 · 沃尔什说“墨西哥来说,考虑到它的规模,以及它在世界范围内因毒品战争而受损的声誉,采取这一步骤意义重大。北美也正走向合法化。”

In Mexico, however, the bill has proved divisive.

然而,在墨西哥,这项法案却引起了分歧。
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Critics say it is unlikely to make a serious dent in Mexico’s soaring rates of cartel-fueled violence, and argue that it is unwelcome in a country where nearly two-thirds of people oppose legalizing marijuana, according to recent polling.

批评人士称,这不太可能对墨西哥不断飙升的贩毒集团引发的暴力事件产生重大影响。根据最近的民意调查,墨西哥近三分之二的人反对大麻合法化,批评人士认为这不受欢迎。
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“It’s a political fad,” said Damián Zepeda Vidales, a senator with the opposition National Action Party and one of the bill’s most vocal detractors. “It’s a matter for politicians, for an elite that’s now empowered in Congress and in government that wants to impose a way of life on society.”

反对党国家行动党参议员达米安 · 塞佩达 · 维达莱斯说,“这只是一种政治风潮。”维达莱斯是该法案最强烈的批评者之一。“这是政客们的事,是国会和政府授权的精英们的事,他们想把一种生活方式强加于社会。”

Security experts agree that the law’s practical impact on violence will likely be minimal: With 15 American states having now legalized marijuana, they argue, the crop has become a relatively small part of the Mexican drug trafficking business, with cartels focusing on more profitable products like fentanyl and methamphetamines.

安全专家一致认为,该法律对暴力的实际影响可能微乎其微: 他们认为,随着美国15个州现在已经使大麻合法化,大麻作物已经成为墨西哥非法毒品贸易业务中相对较小的一部分,贩毒集团专注于更有利可图的产品,如芬太尼和甲基苯丙胺。

“We shouldn’t overestimate the power of this bill,” said Falko Ernst, senior Mexico analyst for the International Crisis Group, a global research organization. The bill will not “substantially change the dynamics and drivers of lethal conflict in Mexico.”

全球研究机构国际危机组织的高级墨西哥分析师法尔科 · 恩斯特说,“我们不应该高估这项法案的影响力。”。该法案不会“从根本上改变墨西哥致命冲突的动态和驱动因素”
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Proponents of legalizing marijuana contend that the bill is too limited in scope, even if it represents a symbolic breakthrough in the push to end a drug war that has cost an estimated 150,000 lives, according to the Council on Foreign Relations.

大麻合法化的支持者认为,该法案的适用范围过于狭窄,尽管根据美国对外关系委员会的数据,该法案代表着结束毒品战争的一个象征性突破,这场战争已导致约15万人丧生。

Legalization “is an important step toward building peace in a country like ours, where for at least a decade or more, we’ve been immersed in an absurd war,” said Lucía Riojas Martínez, a Mexican congresswoman who made headlines in 2019 when she gave a rolled joint to the country’s interior minister, Olga Sánchez Cordero, after delivering a speech in Congress.

合法化“是在像我们这样的国家建设和平的重要一步,至少十年或更长时间以来,我们一直陷入于一场荒谬的战争之中,”墨西哥国会女议员露西亚 · 里奥哈斯 · 马丁内斯说。2019年,她在国会发表演讲后,把一根卷好的大麻烟递给内政部长奥尔加 · 桑切斯 · 科尔德罗,成为了媒体关注的焦点。

“But this bill falls short of achieving that,” she added.

“但是这项法案没有达到这个目标,”她补充说。

It is also unclear how much the law will benefit Mexico’s poor farmers, who have grown marijuana for decades and often end up in the middle of conflicts between warring drug trafficking groups.

目前还不清楚这项法律对墨西哥贫穷的农民有多大好处,他们种植大麻已经有几十年的历史了,经常陷入非法毒品贸易组织之间的冲突。
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The bill mandates that small farmers and Indigenous people be given priority in licensing, but stipulates only that these vulnerable groups can be granted more than one license.

该法案规定小农户和土著人农场主可以优先获得许可证,但只规定这些弱势群体可以获得不止一个许可证。

And without additional state policies to tackle organized crime, particularly in areas where marijuana is grown, said Mr. Ernst, such well-intentioned requirements may not have a meaningful impact for farmers in the regions controlled by cartels.

恩斯特先生说,如果没有额外的国家政策来打击有组织犯罪,特别是在种植大麻的地区,这种善意的要求可能对贩毒集团控制的地区的农民没有实际的影响。
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“For most areas where you have these high-conflict settings,” said Mr. Ernst, there are not enough state resources to truly take on organized crime groups.

恩斯特先生说: “在大多数冲突频发的地区,没有足够的国家资源来真正打击有组织的犯罪集团。”

But many entrepreneurs, at least, are seeing green.

但至少许多企业家看到了前景。

With more than 120 million people, Mexico would represent the largest marijuana market in the world by population. The crop could become big business in Mexico, a potential financial lift for an economy badly battered by the coronavirus crisis.

墨西哥人口超过1.2亿,将成为世界上人口最多的大麻市场。这种作物可能成为墨西哥的大生意,对于遭受新冠疫情重创的墨西哥经济而言,这是一个潜在的财政支持。

“It’s an excellent economic, natural, ethical and moral solution for a country in need,” said Juan Sánchez Mejorada, chief executive of Ceres Soluciones, a medicinal cannabis company.

药用大麻公司的首席执行官胡安 · 桑切斯 · 梅乔拉达说,“对于一个需要帮助的国家来说,这是一个极好的经济、自然、伦理和道德解决方案。”
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“Doing this right could give Mexico an economic surplus,” he said.

他表示: “做好这一点,可能会给墨西哥带来经济盈余。”

This kind of fervor makes pro-marijuana activists nervous.

这种热情让支持大麻的活动家们感到紧张。

“It’s a law for the rich, and marijuana should be for everybody,” said Ivania Medina Rodríguez, 18, a local activist. “They’re going for business before rights.”

18岁的当地活动人士伊万尼亚 · 梅迪纳 · 罗德里格斯说,“这是面向富人的法律,大麻应该对每个人都适用。他们重商轻权。”

Dressed as a giant cannabis leaf, Ms. Medina was attending a protest last year that began at a small marijuana plantation outside the Senate offices in Mexico City, where locals now regularly come to smoke pot while the police turn a blind eye.

去年,梅迪纳把自己打扮成一片巨大的大麻叶,参加了一场抗议活动。抗议活动始于墨西哥城参议院办公室外的一个小型大麻种植园,当地人现在经常来这里吸大麻,而警方对此视而不见。

Some activists fear that the law will overly favor large corporations that could obtain what the bill terms an “integral license,” giving them access to the entire marijuana supply chain, from seed to sale, while leaving small-scale producers and vendors locked out of the lucrative market.

一些活动人士担心,这部法律会过分偏袒那些能够获得法案所称的“整体许可证”的大公司,让他们能够接触到从种子到销售的整个大麻供应链,而让小规模生产商和销售商被排除在利润丰厚的市场之外。

The bill in Mexico would allow individual users to carry up to 28 grams of marijuana and grow six cannabis plants at home. Cannabis could also be purchased by adults over 18 at authorized businesses, and grown at larger scale by licensed groups. Medical marijuana, which Mexico legalized in 2017, would be regulated separately by the health ministry, which published rules in January covering the growing and research of medicinal cannabis.

墨西哥的法案允许个人最多携带28克的大麻,并允许在家中最多种植6株大麻。18岁以上的成年人也可以在授权企业购买大麻,并由获得许可的团体大规模种植。墨西哥于2017年将医用大麻合法化,并由卫生部单独监管。卫生部在今年1月份发布了有关药用大麻种植和研究的规定。
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Local advocates say the restrictions on possession will limit the bill’s impact, particularly for low-income consumers, who may fall prey to extortion from the police, a regular occurrence in Mexico.

当地的倡导者说,对拥有权的限制将限制该法案的影响,特别是对低收入消费者,他们可能会成为警察勒索的牺牲品,这在墨西哥是经常发生的。
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“We live in a country where corruption and extortion is the norm,” said Zara Snapp, co-founder of the RIA Institute, a Mexico-city based drug policy research and advocacy group.

位于墨西哥城的毒品政策研究和倡导组织 RIA 研究所的联合创始人扎拉 · 斯纳普说“我们生活在一个以腐败和敲诈勒索为常态的国家。”

Still, for many proponents in Mexico, approving the bill is a notable step in the long journey toward full legalization.

尽管如此,对于墨西哥的许多支持者来说,批准该法案是迈向全面合法化的漫长旅程中值得关注的一步。

“It’s like when you’re running a marathon and you haven’t started,” said Mr. Sánchez, the marijuana businessman. “It means firing the starting gun, even if we still have 42 kilometers left to go.”

大麻生意人桑切斯先生说“就像你在马拉松比赛,你还没有开始跑。而这项法律意味着打响了发令枪,即使我们还有42公里的路要跑。”

评论翻译
TievX0r
Cartels have already moved on to Avocados anyway.

不管怎样,贩毒集团已经转向了牛油果。(译注:最近这些年,牛油果越来越火,墨西哥的牛油果种植户开心之余,还有点害怕,因为,墨西哥的贩毒集团因为大麻利润下降,也开始搞牛油果了)

Drunk-sysadmin
They really did move on to avocados. (and many other fruits and veggies.) American fields be full of big fancy machines no one is allowed to repair, and Mexican fields be full of machine guns in towers.

他们确实转向了牛油果。(以及许多其他水果和蔬菜)美国的田地里到处都是没人可以修理的大型机器,而墨西哥的田地里到处都是塔楼里的机枪。

davediggity
So both are being held hostage, one by force and the other by economics?

所以,这两个国家都被劫持为人质,一个是被武力劫持,另一个是被经济劫持?

Redebo
Meaning forced/slave labor???

意思是强迫/奴役劳动? ? ?

RonanTheAccused
In some areas yes. Mostly forcing Avocado growers to pay them a "fee" to be able to grow their Avocadoes without problems.

在某些地区是的。大多数情况下,种植牛油果的人都要向他们支付一笔“费用”,以便能够毫无问题地种植他们的牛油果。

weakhamstrings
I'm thinking they've already been in that industry a long time...

我想他们已经在这个行业很久了..

Zazilium
Jesus christ, I swear I read this everytime someone posts something about narcos.
Yes, they took over some of the avocado market, no that's not their main source of income. You guys act like narcos are about to stop selling drugs and start shipping avocados. That's not the case.

上帝啊,我发誓每次有人发关于毒品的帖子我都会看这个。
是的,他们接管了一些牛油果市场,不,那不是他们的主要收入来源。你们表现得好像毒贩子要停止贩毒并开始运送牛油果似的。事实并非如此。

vorpish
They are like Fortune 500 companies. They do everything now. Like the mafia.

他们就像财富500强企业,现在什么都做,就像黑手党一样。

Lee1138
Gotta diversify, y'know?

要多样化,你知道吗?

loserbmx
They have moved onto anything and everything.

他们已经转到任何东西上了。

garnadello
Millennials are the real victims in all this. RIP avocado toast.

千禧一代才是这一切的真正受害者。安息吧,牛油果吐司。

HelloAlbacore
I swear I read this headline at least twice a week

我发誓我每周至少看到两次这个标题

Sasquatchingit
It began as a Supreme Court ruling, made its way to Senate for legislative shaping, went down to The House (sort of equivalent) for revisions. They made a few and approved it; I'm not sure if it goes back to Senate for ratification. There's been a few setbacks as far as dates, but overall it's moved swiftly considering what we're talking about here.

最初是最高法院的一项裁决,然后送到参议院进行立法规划,最后送到众议院进行修改。他们制定了一些并批准了它; 我不确定它是否会送回参议院批准。就日期而言,还有一些挫折,但总的来说,考虑到我们在这里谈论的内容,这些进展很快。

PM_ME_YOUR_THESES
Also, consider that marihuana has been (1) de-criminalized for medical use, then (2) legalized for medical use, then (3) de-criminalized for recreational use, and now it’s in the process of (4) becoming legalized for recreational use.
It’s been a very very long road, but if Mexico with all its red tape can do it, other countries can too.

另外,考虑到大麻已经(1)用于医疗的非犯罪化,然后(2)用于医疗的合法化,然后(3)用于娱乐的非犯罪化,现在正在(4)用于娱乐的合法化的过程中。
这是一条非常非常漫长的道路,但如果繁文缛节的墨西哥能做到,那么其他国家也可以。

ConvenientAmnesia
I thing this will push the US to do so even quicker. They’ll want to compete with supply

我认为,这将推动美国更快采取行动。他们将希望与供应商竞争。

1058pm
The cartels must have probably finished investing/setting up recreational facilities in marijuana and so will now let it be legalized
...same deal with pharmaceutical/tobacco companies in the US

贩毒集团可能已经完成了对大麻的投资/建立娱乐设施,因此现在会让大麻合法化
...与美国的制药/烟草公司达成了同样的协议
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Sgubaba
I hope this will make cartels in Mexico relax a little

我希望这会让墨西哥的贩毒集团放松一点

KeberUggles
nah, they've still got cocaine and avocados

不,他们还有可卡因和牛油果
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That_one_guy_u-know
Those 2 sound like we living in a weird dystopia

这两种听起来就像我们生活在一个奇怪的反乌托邦里

thisguy-probably
Are you calling my breakfast weird?

你是说我的早餐很奇怪吗?

neoanguiano
they are in tons of other businesses already, some "legal" like gas, politics, avocado, and very illegal others

他们已经做了很多其他的业务,有些是“合法的”比如天然气,政治,牛油果,还有一些是非法的。

chefandy
Weed hasn't been profitable for the cartels for 20 years....they've moved on to coke, heroin, fentanyl, meth, pills etc.
In 2000/2001, I was buying 10 lbs of Sinaloas okayest weed at wholesale for $3,500-$3,750.
Now, I was buying the weed in dallas from the dopeman. He was probably buying them in 100+ pound blocks from a bigger dopeman in Houston who probably got them by the truck load from Mexico(likely a semitruck load from somewhere just north of the border)
The cartel was probably getting in the neighborhood of 250-300/# of weed wholesale, but they had to produce the goods, pay the drivers, pay the bribes and take all of the risk..
They were probably bringing in loads of thousands or tens of thousands of pounds, and likely making hundreds of thousands of dollars per shipment.
Now, once border restrictions tightened (9/11) they switched the game up. They had a harder time bringing in giant loads, so they started bringing drugs in smaller amounts (via backpacking and hiking, in passenger cars etc). OR instead of being able to get 10 trucks through in a day, they could only get 1. The bribes got too expensive for 1 truck load of weed (I.e. if you have to pay a 1m bribe, you need a product that will make you millions, not hundreds of K).
The 4.5 kilos(10#) of weed i was buying for $3,500 would've been well over $100k if it was cocaine.
Its a very simple math problem. If I can bring in 100 pounds of drugs, I'd rather make $1.25M vs $35k.
The legal market will be shit in Mexico. The average Jose doesn't earn enough to smoke it, and the wealthy class either already sells drugs or is very much against it.

墨西哥贩毒集团20年来都没有从大麻中获利... 他们转向了可卡因、海洛因、芬太尼、冰毒、药片等。
在2000年/2001年,我以3500美元到3750美元的批发价购买了10磅锡那罗亚最好的大麻。
现在,我在达拉斯从毒贩那里买大麻。他可能是在一百多个街区内,从休斯顿的一个更大的毒贩那里买的,那个毒贩可能是从墨西哥用卡车运来的(很可能是一辆半挂式卡车从边境北边的某个地方运来的)
这个贩毒集团可能批发大约250磅到300磅的大麻,但他们不得不生产产品,向司机支付报酬,行贿并承担所有风险...
他们可能会带来成千上万英镑的货物,每批货物可能会有数十万美元的收入。
现在,一旦边境限制收紧(9/11),他们就改变了游戏规则。他们很难把大量的毒品运进来,所以他们开始把毒品的数量减少(通过背包徒步旅行,乘坐客车等方式)。或者,他们只能让一辆卡车通过,因为不能在一天内让十辆卡车通过。对于一卡车的大麻来说,贿赂成本太高了(也就是说,如果你必须支付一百万美元的贿赂,而你需要的是一种能让你赚上几百万美元而不是几十万美元的产品)。
我花3500美元买的4.5公斤(10镑)大麻,如果是可卡因的话,就远远超过了10万美元。
这是一道非常简单的数学题。如果我能带来100磅毒品,我宁愿赚125万美元,而不是3.5万美元。
墨西哥的法律市场会一团糟的。普通人挣的钱不够抽大麻,而富裕阶层要么已经在卖毒品,要么非常反对。

esq-with-a-habit
Weed hasn’t been profitable for the cartels for 20 years
Got a source on that?

20年来,大麻一直没有为贩毒集团带来利润
有消息来源吗?

StoutFlow206
Who knows though the government in this shitty country is pretty fucking stupid. I would be shocked if it was legalized soon.

谁知道这个操蛋国家的政府是不是真他妈的蠢。如果它很快合法化,我会感到震惊的。
原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.cn 转载请注明出处


TyrannoROARus
My sister had a high-school bf.
Her high-school bf had a brother.
My sister's bf's brother died of alcohol poisoning.
If I was a parent, my child abusing weed vs. abusing alcohol is a no-brainer.

我妹妹有个高中男朋友。
她的高中男朋友有一个哥哥。
我妹妹的男朋友的哥哥死于酒精中毒。
如果我是家长,我的孩子滥用大麻 vs 滥用酒精是显而易见的。

Vynnvan
A guy I knew died of alcohol poisoning. That's all you had to say. Not make it sound like a spook story you heard on the playground.

我认识的一个人死于酒精中毒。这就是你要说的全部。不要让它听起来像是你在操场上听到的鬼故事。

CapnCabbage
That was a needlessly roundabout way to say what you said.

你那样拐弯抹角地说话,真没必要。

SacKingsRS
It's basically what some U.S. states did but on a national level and minus the initiated ballot measures.
Other than Switzerland pretty much no other country out there has an equivalent to America's state-level initiated referendums, so you're probably not going to see that many countries legalize cannabis in the piecemeal way the USA currently is.

这基本上就是美国一些州所做的事情,但在国家层面上,免去了最初的投票措施。
除了瑞士,几乎没有其他国家有类似于美国州级发起的全民公投,所以你可能不会看到很多国家像美国现在这样一点一点地将大麻合法化。

Sciencemusk
After the Supreme Court's ruling, they put up a deadline for April 30th of this year for the guidelines to be set and approved - so voting in the senate should make it official by april, but who knows when it will go into effect.

在最高法院的裁决之后,他们把今年4月30日定为制定和批准该指导方针的最后期限,所以参议院的投票应该在4月之前使其正式生效,但谁知道它什么时候生效。

fermafone
I’ve been reading it for like 10 years. And I’ve still never gotten good weed in Mexico.

我已经读这类报道差不多10年了,在墨西哥我还是没有找到好的大麻。

pvrugger
Shitty weed is cartel weed. Good weed is from your friends. I have good friends.

劣质大麻是贩毒集团的大麻,而好的大麻是你朋友送的。我有好朋友。

fermafone
Good weed is from America has been my experience.
Mexico is still better than Eastern Europe weed.

我的经验是,好的大麻来自美国。
墨西哥的仍然比东欧的好。

Redditributor
From the United States

来自美国

12Wei
The States always be meddling in other sovereign nations’ affairs

美国总是干涉其他主权国家的事务

SirJackieTreehorn
I vaguely remember there was a push for decriminalization quite a few years ago, not legalization, in the the Mexican legislature but pressure from the US government hampered it. This was well before the recent wave of legalization in US states.

我依稀记得,几年前,墨西哥立法机构曾推动毒品非犯罪化,而不是合法化,但美国政府的压力阻碍了这一进程。这远远早于最近美国各州的大麻合法化浪潮。

lilyintx
And now we will cross the border for a better life in Mexico.

现在,我们将穿越边境,在墨西哥过上更好的生活。

EVILB0NG
I think we should all take a moment to thank the real hero here, the United States of America.
After all, Mexico could not have become the world's largest market for marijuanna without America's barbaric and racist War on Drugs.
So thank you America! Keep exporting those "traditional values!"

我想我们都应该花点时间感谢这里真正的英雄,美利坚合众国。
毕竟,如果没有美国的野蛮和种族主义的毒品战争,墨西哥不可能成为世界上最大的大麻市场。
所以,感谢美国! 继续输出这些“传统价值观”吧!

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