话题:养老金三重保证制度是对英国年轻人的侮辱
2021-07-05 jiangye111 9010
正文翻译
The pension triple-lock is an insult to the UK’s young people
-While Boris Johnson panders to older voters, younger generations’ prospects are bleaker than ever

养老金三重保证制度是对英国年轻人的侮辱
——在鲍里斯·约翰逊迎合年长选民的同时,年轻一代的前景比以往任何时候都更加黯淡了


(‘Baby boomers have colossal untaxed wealth in homes that have risen in value by more than 300% in the past three decades.’ Leverstock Green, near Hemel Hempstead.)

(“婴儿潮时期出生的人在过去30年里房产增值超过300%,他们拥有巨额的免税财富。”——赫默尔亨普斯特德附近的勒沃斯托克格兰。)
新闻:

Here’s a tale of two generations, the pensioners and young workers. As the pandemic furlough winds down this week, one generation is destined for a mighty windfall from the government while the other gets nothing. The reason is clear: the Tories win three times more votes from one group than the other.

这是一个关于两代人的故事,领养老金的人和年轻工人。随着大流行的休假本周结束,其中一代人注定会从政府获得巨大的意外之财,而另一代人则什么都得不到。原因很清楚:保守党从其中一个群体中赢得的选票是另一个的三倍多。

As of this week, employers start picking up the furlough bill, previously paid by the government, and many will let staff go, with their businesses still running on empty. Most of those losing jobs will be young people in the low-paid hospitality, arts, entertainment and tourism sectors, who, warns the Resolution Foundation, will struggle to find work: reports of worker shortages “have been overplayed”, and so have reports of steep pay rises. But those artificial pay-rise figures are about to deliver a bonanza for pensioners.

从本周开始,雇主们开始为之前由政府支付的休假账单买单,许多雇主将解雇员工,而他们的企业仍在亏损。失去工作的大部分将是低收入的酒店、艺术、娱乐和旅游行业的年轻人。决议基金会警告称,这些人将很难找到工作:有关工人短缺的报道“被夸大了”,有关工资大幅上涨的报道也是如此。但这些人为的加薪数字将给领养老金的人带来一笔巨款。

We can expect a fight between prime minister and chancellor: that age-old strife between a voter-pleasing big spender in No 10 and a fiscal rectitude-obsessed penny-pincher next door. With every minister pressing for funds in the autumn spending review, the question of uprating the pension is primal: every Tory MP was elected on a manifesto pledge to keep the pension triple lock in perpetuity.

我们可以预见首相和财政大臣之间会有一场争斗:唐宁街10号里为了取悦选民而挥金如土的那个人,和隔壁那个热衷于财政清廉的吝啬鬼之间由来已久的争斗。在秋季开支审查中,每一位大臣都迫切要求拨款,提高养老金的问题是首要的:每一位保守党议员都在竞选宣言中承诺要永久保持养老金三重保证。
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Butowing to a statistical accident, the chancellor finds it an exceptionally expensive promise. The pledge is to uprate pensions by consumer price inflation, by 2.5%, or by the rise in average earnings – whichever is the highest. But by a freak of the pandemic, wages appear to have risen by 5.6%, and later this month some economists predict a rise to 8%. Don’t imagine ordinary earners have really received this rise: the measure compares artificially low pay at the height of the first wave, when about 10 million furloughed workers lost 20% of their pay, with now. Low earners losing their jobs altogether takes them out of the figures, making the average rise look artificially high. Torsten Bell of the Resolution Foundation explains it like this: in a couple where one earns, say, £10,000 and the other £30,000, if the low earner loses their job, the couple’s average pay rises – because one drops out of the pay calculation altogether. He suggests the underlying rate is really just over 2%.

但从一个统计事故来看,财政大臣发现这是一个异常昂贵的承诺。政府承诺将以消费价格通胀率(2.5%)或平均收入增长率(以两者中最高的为准)来提高养老金。但是由于大流行导致的反常,工资似乎上涨了5.6%,本月晚些时候一些经济学家预测会上升到8%。不要想象普通收入者真的得到了这种增长:该指标拿第一波失业高峰时的人为低工资(当时约有1000万临时休假工人的工资减少了20%)与现在比较。低收入者完全失去工作,这使得平均增长看起来人为地高了。决议基金会的托尔斯滕·贝尔这样解释:一对夫妻中,一个人赚1万英镑,另一个人赚3万英镑,如果低收入者失业,夫妻的平均工资就会上涨——因为其中一人的工资被完全排除在薪酬计算之外。他认为,实际增长率实际上只是略高于2%。

To keep the triple lock will cost at least a walloping £4bn, yet again tilting state support towards all pensioners – regardless of their wealth – and away from working families and children. Ever since the triple lock was instituted, pensioners have gained, while a decade of benefit cuts has taken at least £37bn away from families. Yet when earnings growth was negligible last year pensioners still got their 2.5% increase, and now this injustice between generations may be exacerbated even further.

维持这一三重保障至少将耗资40亿英镑,这将使政府的补贴再次向所有领取养老金的人倾斜——不管他们的财富状况如何——而远离工薪家庭和儿童。自三重保证实施以来,领取养老金的人获益了,而10年的福利削减让家庭损失了至少370亿英镑。然而,当去年收入增长微不足道时,养老金领取者仍然得到了2.5%的增长,而现在这种代际不平等可能会进一步加剧。

The UK’s 12 million pensioners are already the group least likely to be poor, a historic transformation achieved under Labour, when a million were lifted above the poverty threshold. The blessed baby boomer generation has never-to-be-repeated private pensions, and colossal untaxed wealth in the value of homes bought cheaply, the value of which has risen by over 300% in the last three decades. Three-quarters of pensioners are homeowners.

英国的1200万养老金领取者已经成了最不可能成为穷人的群体,这是工党执政期间实现的历史性转变,当时有100万人脱离了贫困线。被祝福的婴儿潮一代拥有永远不会重复计算的私人养老金,以及廉价购买的房产所带来的巨额免税财富,这些房产的价值在过去三十年里上涨了超过300%。四分之三的养老金领取者都是房主。
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But there are some very poor pensioners, the oldest tending to be poorest, 2.1m of whom urgently need support. Labour introduced pension credit to top up pensions of those with virtually no other income. But here’s the scandal: nearly a million are not claiming an already too-low pension credit, losing on average £32 a week. Two hundred thousand pensioner households fail to claim an average £62 in housing benefit. Older single women, who have the lowest pensions, are owed most. Many miss out not through pride, but because they don’t know their rights or need help to claim, so more than £2bn sits in the Treasury unclaimed every year.

但也有一些非常贫穷的养老金领取者,最年长的人趋向于最贫穷,其中210万人急需帮助。工党引入了养老金信贷来增加那些几乎没有其他收入的人的养老金。但丑闻却是:近100万人没有申请已经太低的养老金抵扣,平均每周损失32英镑。20万个领取养老金的家庭没有申请平均62英镑的住房补贴。老年单身女性的养老金最低,她们的债务最多。许多人错过了机会,不是因为要面子,而是因为他们不知道自己有什么权利,或者需要别人帮助他们申领,因此每年有超过20亿英镑无人申领。

Since everyone gets their basic state pension, the Department for Work and Pensions knows exactly where these non-claiming poor pensioners are and should be commissioning councils, Age UK and Citizens Advice to contact every one of them. It’s an amusing irony that, now the over-75s are starting to have to pay for their TV licences – unless they draw pension credit – an avalanche of new pension credit claims is expected, which may end up costing the government a fat slice of the money it cut from the BBC.

由于每个人都得到了基本的国家养老金,工作和养老金部确切地知道这些没有申领的贫穷养老金领取者在哪里,并且应该委托委员会,老年英国和公民建议组织联系他们每一个人。这是一个有趣的讽刺:现在75岁以上的人必须开始为他们的电视许可费付费(除非他们是领取养老金人群),预计会出现大量新的养老金申请,这可能最终会让政府从BBC削减的资金中损失掉一大块。

The government needs to give poor pensioners increased pension credit, then abandon the triple lock. Also people of working age shouldn’t pay for the awaited new social care system, which must come from the property wealth of the old themselves. Nor should the chancellor try to balance his debts on the backs of the young, who have the least. “Levelling up” should mean fairness between the generations too, so give a high priority to restoring the billions denied to schools to catch up on academic time lost during the pandemic, and for their lost arts and sports. The Resolution Foundation describes how the jobs and careers landscape for the young is causing a mental health crisis, all as their chances of buying a home are receding. Bell says the UK has far greater wealth than any EU country, though it sits there in bricks and mortar, out of reach for most young people.

政府需要给贫穷的养老金领取者增加养老金信用额度,然后放弃三重保证。此外,工作年龄的人不应该为将要出台的新社会保障体系买单,这必须来自老人们自己的财产财富。财政大臣也不应该试图从年轻人身上平衡他的债务,因为他们的财富最少。“提高水平”也应该意味着代际之间的公平,因此应该优先恢复被剥夺的,原本要给学校的,弥补它们在大流行期间失去的学业时间,以及艺术和体育教育的损失的数十亿美元。决议基金会称,随着年轻人买房的机会越来越小,他们的工作和职业前景正在引发一场心理健康危机。贝尔说,英国的财富远远超过任何一个欧盟国家,但是英国的财富集中于房地产,大多数年轻人无法获得。

Despite recent talk of too many graduates, in the UK just 50% of the population has a degree, compared with an OECD average of 70%. That’s according to Prof Bobby Duffy’s forthcoming book, Generations: Does When You’re Born Shape Who You Are? But his research shows how forgiving the young are too. They don’t blame the old for stealing their future. “They don’t want to mug Grandma,” according to Duffy. People live in families, not in generational isolation; and they’re well aware that they will grow old too.

尽管最近有人说英国大学毕业生太多了,但在英国,只有50%的人口拥有学位,而经合组织的平均水平是70%。这是鲍比·达菲教授即将出版的新书《世代:出生的时机决定了你的人生吗?》中写到的。但他的研究也表明,年轻人是多么的宽容。他们不会责怪老年人偷走了他们的未来。达菲说:“他们不想抢劫奶奶。”人们生活在家庭中,而不是世代孤立;他们很清楚自己也会变老。

There’s no reason to play off the needs of the young against the old. But if Boris Johnson insists on bribing voters by keeping the pension triple lock this year when it makes no sense, then the young should also get many multiples of that – if his much vaunted “levelling up” is to mean anything at all.

没有理由利用年轻人的需求来对抗老年人。但如果鲍里斯·约翰逊今年在毫无意义的情况下坚持通过保持养老金的三重保证来贿赂选民,那么年轻人也应该得到这个数字的许多倍——如果他大肆吹嘘的“提高水平”有任何意义的话。

评论翻译
bt812
We either need a form of wealth tax or means testing for pensions, because the constant transfer of wealth from young to old is destroying the country. I'd also settle for extending the state pension to all adults as a UBI, but then that's dreaming.

我们要么需要一种形式的财富税,要么需要对养老金进行收入状况调查,因为财富不断从年轻人向老年人转移正在摧毁这个国家。我也会满足于把国家养老金作为全民医保扩展到所有成年人,但那只是梦想。

DifficultWrath
It’s not really the transfer from young to old that is the problem, it’s the transfer from poor to rich.Sure the old get a larger chunk of what’s left but let’s be realist, UK pension is shit. The fact that the rest of welfare is even shittier in comparison is distraction, we need better welfare overall and the people with the money to pay for it are busy pointing fingers in every directions: pensioner, immigrant, “scrounger”, urban working class, liberals, …
The only thing we can blame the pensioner for is actively promoting the scapegoating bullcrap of their overlords.

问题不在于财富从年轻人向老年人的转移,而在于穷人向富人的转移。当然,老年人得到了剩余的大部分,但让我们现实点,英国养老金就是狗屎。事实上,其他福利制度相比之下更糟糕,这让人分心,我们需要更好的整体福利,而有钱支付福利的人正忙着对各个方面指手骂脚:领养老金的人、移民、“乞丐”、城市工人阶级、自由主义者……
我们唯一能指责的是养老金领取者在积极地为他们的主子当替罪羊。

bt812
Regardless of overall wealth inequality, the transfer from a poorer group to a less poor group is a problem. A wealth tax would fund pensions using the money of the wealthy and ensure the transfer of wealth moves downwards rather than upwards. But in the absence of a wealth tax, it is still an improvement to stop transferring wealth from the already far less wealthy young people.

撇开整体财富不平等不考虑,从较穷群体向较不穷群体的转移是一个问题。财富税将用富人的钱为养老金提供资金,并确保财富向下转移,而不是向上转移。但在没有财富税的情况下,停止从已经远不如现在富有的年轻人手中转移出财富仍是一项进步。

unhinged_parsnip
the real salt in the wound is the costs of the pandemic that was overwhelmingly to protect pensioners, being dumped on the young rather than dare touch the sacred triple lock.

真正在伤口上撒盐的是在这场大流行中为保护领养老金的人而付出的代价,它被压在年轻人身上,而不是敢于触碰神圣的三重保证。
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TruthSpeaker
The boomers are where they are today because their parents and grandparents made sacrifices for them in two world wars.
Now the boomers have reached a point in the circle of life where it's clearly the turn of the younger generation to make sacrifices for them.
And just for good measure they stole the next generation's future from them by voting for Brexit.

婴儿潮一代之所以能有今天,是因为他们的父母和祖父母在两次世界大战中为他们做出了牺牲。
现在婴儿潮一代已经达到了生命周期中的一个点:很明显,轮到年轻一代为他们做出牺牲了。
更重要的是,他们通过投票脱欧偷走了下一代的未来。

Chip365
Anyone else considering suicide when they get too old to earn?
Seems like in 20-30 years, it might be the logical/rational thing to do.

还有谁想过当他们老得无法挣钱时就自杀吗?
似乎在20-30年后,这可能是合乎逻辑/理性的事情。
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MuttWit
I fully expect to reach a point in the not too distant future where it will seem like the best option. And the worst thing about it is I don't think it will matter at all. The people who run the country are in it to make as much money as possible and once things turn against them they'll have their escape plan. Whether a bunch of people are suffering and chuck themselves into the abyss won't bother them in the slightest.

我完全指望在不久的将来,这似乎是最好的选择。最糟糕的是,我认为这一点都不重要。统治这个国家的人是为了尽可能多地赚钱,一旦事情对他们不利,他们就会有自己的逃跑计划。一群人是否在受苦,是否把自己扔进深渊,这一点都不会影响他们。
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2210-2211
I don't pay into a pension because I'd rather have that extra few £ a month right now, I'm poor enough without paying into something I'll never get to use. I'm not planning on being alive for long enough to need one.
My only retirement plan is to die young.

我不会存养老金,因为我宁愿现在就每个月有那多出来的钱,我已经够穷了,不能存那些我永远都用不上的东西。我可没打算活到需要用到存款的时候。
我唯一的退休计划就是英年早逝。

FishUK_HarpNeoliberal Shill
Means test it and remove the guaranteed growth element. "Pensioner" is no longer a by-word for poverty; they on average as a group have more disposable income than working families.
I'm sick and tired of people who failed to take basic steps like saving for retirement claiming they "deserve" their state pension. It's even worse coming from those with an expensive house - having a high-value asset you're emotionally attached to shouldn't give you an excuse to sponge off the state.

对其进行调查,然后去掉保证增长的因素。“养老金领取者”不再是贫穷的代名词了:作为一个群体,他们的平均可支配收入高于工薪家庭。
我厌倦了那些没有采取基本措施,比如为退休存钱,却声称他们“值得”领取国家养老金的人。对于那些拥有昂贵房子的人来说,我更加不爽——拥有一笔你在情感上依恋的高价值资产,不应该成为你依赖国家的借口。
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J37__ 23
For many people when they bought their houses they were not an investment, it was a roof over their head, somewhere to raise a family and make families.
Housing as an investment has caused a lot of problems and will continue to till we as a society accept a roof over your head is a need not a right for those with enough money.

对许多人来说,他们买房子并不是一种投资,它只是他们头顶上的一个屋顶,一个养育家庭的地方。
住房作为一种投资已经造成了很多问题,并且会继续下去,直到我们作为一个社会接受住房是一种需求,而不是那些有足够钱的人的权利。

VictuswolfTest
Stop pitting Young vs the the Old. One day we are all going to be too old to work and pensions should be protected for that reason as wages for most people are not high enough to put into a pension yourself. Pensions and benefits are a tiny fraction of the UK's budget where Tax Avoidance costs the UK 100x more in comparison.
First they used immigrants as a scapegoat for this countries problems to convince sheep that cutting benefits & brexit was a good idea. Now they are going after the elderly to screw over everyone.
You know what's a insult to the UK's young people? Insulting their intelligence. The only young people buying this tripe are the ones that bought into brexit.
Wages are too low in this country but that has nothing to do with pensions and everything to do with the people we keep voting into power. (brexit will make it worse as its been a nightmare for all UK businesses) Reducing pensions won't help any young people get better wages but it will fk them once they get too old to work. You basically get double fked. Wages too low to save for a pension while your young + non-existent pension once you can no longer work.

别再挑拨年轻人 VS 老年人了。总有一天,我们也都会因为太老而无法工作,养老金应该得到保护,因为大多数人的工资都没有高到可以自己存养老金。养老金和福利只占英国预算的一小部分,相比之下,避税造成的损失在英国高达100倍。
首先,他们把移民当做这个国家问题的替罪羊,让其他绵羊们相信削减福利和脱欧是一个好主意。现在,在他们cao了所有人之后,他们又盯上了老年人。
你知道对英国年轻人来说什么是侮辱吗?侮辱他们的智力。只有那些相信英国脱欧的年轻人才会相信这种无稽之谈。
这个国家的工资太低了,但这与养老金无关,而是与我们投票选出的人有关。(英国脱欧会让情况变得更糟,因为这对所有英国企业来说都是一场噩梦)减少养老金不会帮助任何年轻人获得更好的工资,但一旦他们太老无法工作,就会让他们失业。你基本上得到了双倍的cao:工资太低无法存养老金 + 一旦你不能再工作了,你领不到养老金。

dr_barnowl
I agree with your sentiments but need to address the inaccuracies.
Pensions and benefits are a tiny fraction of the UK's budget where Tax Avoidance costs the UK 100x more in comparison.
Pensions and benefits are the largest single line item in the budget ("social protection"), more than 2x Healthcare, more than Education, Defence, Transport and Agriculture all rolled together.
About 35% of all public spending.
Tax Avoidance
HMRC estimate we lost ... a staggering .... £1.7B to tax avoidance in 2018-2019. The total "tax gap" which includes other underpayments is just over £30B.
Even the estimate by the PCS unx (main unx at HMRC) was £120B - which is about half the welfare budget, not 100x more, and just about covers the pension spend.
Wages are too low in this country but that has nothing to do with pensions.
"Wages are low" only matters relative to cost-of-living, and cost-of-living is high here - and this has plenty to do with pensions.
Our public pension is crap, compared to many in Europe, so people have tended to want other investments, and one of the most reliable has been property - most notably, ex council houses, which the government sold at a discount to many of the people at pension age now.
Things like Equity Release Schemes, where you sell your house to a big landlord in exchange for a lump sum and a free tenancy until you die, have been taking up the slack for our public pensions - now 40% of the council houses sold under Right to Buy belong to landlords.
This inflates the property market, by reducing the supply of council housing, along with the other policies that Tory governments push on property, like insisting that councils cannot rent property out more cheaply than "market rate".
And so we end up in a situation where property prices rise above inflation. As you say - your wages are too low to save for a pension, because your landlord is gobbling the largest single chunk of them.
Cost of living is high here, because the rentier class are taking a massive cut of everything - your rent, the rent your employer pays, the interest on the loans. It's a big part of the reason we can't compete as a labour force on the global stage.
IMHO the number one issue that needs addressing is social housing - which would stabilise or deflate the property market, which would reduce it's power as a massive siphon of the wealth generated by the workers of this country. Which is why the Tories won't be doing that.

我同意你的观点,但需要指出错误之处。
“养老金和福利只占英国预算的一小部分,相比之下,避税造成的损失在英国高达100倍”
养老金和福利是预算中最大的单项项目(“社会保障”),是医疗保健的两倍,超过教育、国防、交通和农业全部加起来的两倍。
大约占所有公共支出的35%。
“避税”
英国税务海关总署估计我们2018-2019年由于避税损失了…惊人的……17亿英镑。包括其他未缴税款在内的“税收缺口”总额略微超过300亿英镑。
即使是PCS联盟(英国税务海关总署的主要联盟)的估计是1200亿英镑——大约是福利预算的一半,而不是100倍以上,而且仅够支付养老金支出。
“这个国家的工资太低,但这与养老金无关”
“工资低”只与生活成本有关,而这里的生活成本很高——这与养老金有很大关系。
与许多欧洲国家相比,我们的公共养老金是垃圾,所以人们倾向于想要其他的投资,其中最可靠的是房地产——最值得注意的是,前市政房屋,它们以折扣价出售给许多现在已经到了退休年龄的人。
而股票发行计划之类的东西,比如你把你的房子卖给一个大房东换取一笔钱以及免费租赁直到你死,一直在填补我们公共养老金的空缺——现在,根据购房权法案出售的市政房屋中,有40%属于房东。
通过减少政府住房的供应,以及保守党政府推行的其他房地产政策,比如坚持地方政府不能以低于“市场价格”的价格出租房地产,这使得房地产市场膨胀了。
所以我们最终的结果是,房地产价格高于通货膨胀。就像你说的,你的工资太低,无法存养老金,因为你的房东正在吞掉其中最大的一块。
这里的生活成本很高,因为食利者阶层正在从所有的东西中拿走很大一块——你的租金,你的雇主支付的租金,贷款的利息。这是我们不能在全球舞台上作为劳动力竞争的一个重要原因。
依我之见,需要解决的首要问题是社会住房——这将稳定或紧缩房地产市场,这将减少它作为这个国家工人创造的财富的巨大虹吸的力量。这就是保守党不会这么做的原因。

Danslen01r
For me the selfishness comes from demanding something they know will be unsustainable in the longer-term without the state pension age continuing to increase for the next generation(s).
Whilst life expectancy has gone up over previous decades the curve is flattening, and just because someone is alive for longer does not mean they will be able to work for longer, particularly if their chosen profession necessitates a certain level of physical health/fitness.
I dread to think what the state pension age will be when it comes my turn to enter retirement, and think it is very likely that whatever turns out to be the case will leave me with fewer 'golden years' in a reasonable state of physical health during which I I'll be able to relax after a lifetime of work than my parents have had.

在我看来,自私来自于要求一些他们知道从长远来看是不可持续的东西,因为下一代的国家养老金年龄不会继续提高。
虽然预期寿命在过去几十年有所增加,但曲线是平坦的,仅仅因为一个人活得更久并不意味着他们将能够工作更久,特别是如果他们选择的职业需要一定水平的身体健康/适合。
当轮到我退休时,我不敢去想国家规定的领取养老金的年龄是多少,并且我认为很有可能,无论结果是什么,将留给我更少的处于一个合理的身体健康状态的,工作了比我父母时间更长的一辈子,我终于可以放松了的“退休时期”。
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scxtkiddie1337
How dare these old people work all their lives and enjoy retirement

这些老人怎么敢工作一辈子之后还享受退休生活呢

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