为什么(历史上)非洲人被世界其他地区如此广泛地用作奴隶?,为什么没有使用美洲原住民当奴隶?
2021-08-01 ycb1990 16053
正文翻译


为什么非洲人被世界其他地区如此广泛地用作奴隶?为什么他们被认为更不像人类?是因为他们的长相吗?如果是这样,为什么?还是因为他们被视为“野蛮人”?如果是这样的话,为什么没有使用美洲原住民当奴隶?

评论翻译
Jon Jones
From the time of Columbus onwards Europeans enslaved native Americans. Although Columbus enslaved peoples of the Caribbean and not mainland natives.

从哥伦布时代开始,欧洲人就奴役美洲原住民。哥伦布奴役的是加勒比地区的人民,而不是大陆土著。
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It's also worth mentioning that Native Americans often enslaved other Native Americans and occasionally enslaved white people too.

同样值得一提的是,美洲原住民经常奴役其他美洲原住民,偶尔也奴役白人。

Disease had wiped many N American Natives out by the time that large numbers of slaves were required.

到需要大量奴隶的时候,疾病已经使许多北美原住民丧生。

Africans are used to working in the heat, have resistance to many diseases, were then, as now, very numerous and were relatively easy for whites to buy or trade fromArabs and indeed other Africans. Availability and durability was as big a reason for African slave ownership as any other.

非洲人习惯于在炎热的环境下工作,对许多疾病有抵抗力,那时和现在一样非洲人人数众多,白人相对容易从阿拉伯人和其他非洲人那里购买或交易黑人奴隶。黑人人数众多和奴役性强是黑人被大量奴役的原因。

Powerful peoples have enslaved weaker peoples since the beginning of humanity. Justification of such abhorrent practices is fairly recent and it's entirely possiblethat early slave traders didn't think they needed to justify their actions.

自人类诞生以来,强大的民族就奴役着弱小的民族。对这种可恶行径的辩护是最近才出现的,早期的奴隶贩子完全有可能认为他们没有必要为自己的行为辩护。

Although it was widely believed that Africans were biologically and intellectually inferior. Perhaps those in power allowed the trade based on these views. Certainly it takes a certain amount of mental gymnastics to put into law the 1791 Bill of Rights- guaranteeing the rights of man, when quite literally 100's of 1000’s lived as slaves in America.

人们普遍认为非洲人在生理和智力上都低人一等。也许当权者也是基于这些观点才允许用非洲人做奴隶交易。当初把1791年的《人权法案》写入法律需要一定的思想抗争,这个法案保障了人的权利,而实际上在当时的美国,1000名黑人中100名是被奴役的。

Perhaps surprisingly and certainly shockingly there's more people held as slaves today than any period in the last few 1000 yrs.

令人惊讶和震惊的是,今天被当作奴隶的人比过去1000年的任何时期都多。

Alexander Rose
People from all over were enslaved, including Native Americans. Native Americans were used from 1490s up to about 1750. They ran away too much, they knew the land, and they had less immunity to Old World diseases, while black people already had the same immunity as white people.

全世界的人都被奴役了,包括美洲原住民。从14世纪90年代到17世纪50年代,美洲原住民一直被奴役。此后他们大量离家出走,更好的熟悉了这片土地,他们当时的免疫力较低,而黑人已经和白人一样对疾病具有同等免疫力。
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Slavery was legal. Of course, that doesn't make it right.

奴隶制是合法的,当然,这并不意味着奴隶制是正确的。

There are commandants in the Abrahamic religions that say slavery is acceptable.

美国亚伯拉罕宗教的一些指挥官说奴隶制是可以接受的。

As for black people, there are things in the Abrahamic religions that say black people have the curse, and that's why they are black, and that these curses are passed through all the descendants, and that's why it was considered acceptable to enslave them.

至于黑人,亚伯拉罕宗教说黑人是受到诅咒的,这就是为什么他们的肤色是黑色,这些诅咒世代相传,这也是为什么人们认为奴役他们是可以接受的。

Most people don't know about this today, and most people disagree with this today, and some people will deny it, but it's how people historically justified slavery.

今天大多数人不知道或不同意这一点,甚至有些人会否认这一点,但这就是历史上人们如何为奴隶制辩护的。

Thomas Gray
I won't pretend to be an expert on the first part of your question, but it's my understanding that Africans being the "standard" came mostly from the fact that they were already enslaved in large numbers within Africa before being sold or traded to Europeans by their own people, but I'm sure Europeans seeing them as different, as "savages" or otherwise "less-than" also played a role.

我不会假装自己是这个问题的专家,但我的理解是,非洲人之所以成为被大量使用的奴隶,主要是因为他们在被自己的人民出售或买卖给欧洲人之前,就已经在非洲境内大量被奴役,但我肯定欧洲人认为他们与众不同,认为非洲人是”野蛮人”或”低人一等”。

That said, Native Americans absolutely were used as slaves for similar reasons. That's part of why it's slightly more common for African Americans to have a small amount of Native American ancestry than it is for white Americans- early in North America's history Natives were enslaved alongside the Africans who were brought over, and some had children together. This was also common in South America, and in what is now Canada there were about twice as many Native slaves as African.

也就是说,美洲原住民绝对也是出于同样的原因被奴隶的。这也部分解释了为什么非裔美国人比白人更多的拥有少量美洲原住民血统的原因。在北美历史的早期,原住民和非洲人一起被奴役,他们被带到这里来,有些人还一起生了孩子。这在南美洲也很常见,在现在的加拿大,土著奴隶的数量是非洲人的两倍。

As others have pointed out however, it was much easier for enslaved Natives in America to just run away.

然而,正如其他人指出的那样,在美国,被奴役的土著人逃跑要容易得多。
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Michael Farrington
Many native Americans were forced into slavery by sending them to the Caribbean to work in the sugar cane fields. This happened to many of them following King Phillip’s War in the New England area.

许多美洲原住民被迫沦为奴隶,被派往加勒比海地区在甘蔗地里干活。在菲利普国王在新英格兰地区发动战争之后,他们中的许多人就遇到了这种情况。

Mae Tierny
I wish I had a simple answer to give you. Something less vile then the truth. But I don’t. I think the most of it was simply they had no armies to protect them. Except in Egypt.

我希望我能给你一个简单的答案,一些比真相更加邪恶的事情。但我没有。我想非洲人被大量奴役的最主要的原因是他们没有军队来保护他们,除了埃及。

It is the same as child abuse. You teach the child they are vile and responsible for being treated badly. It was convenient to see them as less then human and no real science at that time to tell us differently.

这和虐待儿童是一样的。你教育孩子说他们是邪恶的,他们应该为自己受到的虐待负责。我们很容易就可以了解到,在那个时候,那些非洲人不被视为人类,也没有真正的科学来告诉我们这有什么不对。

Native Americans were also seen by many as savages and not human. They were used as slaves.

美洲原住民也被许多人视为野蛮人而不是人类。他们被当作奴隶使用。
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We are so much alike, its only a fraction of 1% different. For example “black” people have darker skin because they have more melanin. Which they need because its very bright where they come from, from where people began!

我们有很多相似之处,只有百分之一的不同。例如,“黑人”皮肤较黑是因为他们有更多的黑色素。他们之所以需要更多的黑色素,是因为他们来自太阳光充足的地方,也是人类起源的地方!

I’m pale because my people come from Ireland where it is pretty far north but also overcast a lot. So we needed to have less melanin. That’s all. If you want to gauge my worth you should do so by my actions, not by the amount of melanin in my skin.

我脸色苍白,是因为我的族人来自爱尔兰,那里非常偏北,阴天偏多。所以我们皮肤中的黑色素也会更少。仅此而已。如果你想衡量我的价值,你应该通过我的行动,而不是通过我皮肤中的黑色素的数量。

TJ Berens
Why were Africans so widely used for slavery by the rest of the world? Why were they seen as less than human? Is it the way they look? If so, why? Is it because they were seen as “savages”? If so, why weren’t Native Americans used?

为什么非洲人被世界其他地区如此广泛地用作奴隶?为什么他们被认为更不像人类?是因为他们的长相吗?如果是这样,为什么?还是因为他们被视为“野蛮人”?如果是这样的话,为什么没有使用美洲原住民当奴隶?

Historically, slavery goes back a lot further than colonialism’s version.

从历史上看,奴隶制要比殖民主义的历史要久远得多。

We have documentation that slaves came from any walk of life….

我们有文件证明,奴隶来自各行各业... ... 。

We see it in biblical times as an already long established practice.

在《圣经》时代,我们将奴隶制视为一种已经存在很长时间的惯例。

After that, any population that was vulnerable could be taken into slavery.

在那之后,任何易受伤害的人口都可能沦为奴隶。

Populations living in small groups, unprotected, typically due to an agricultural or pastoral lifestyle… were more vulnerable/easier targets.

生活在小群体中,不受保护的,典型的农业或牧业生活方式的人群... ... 是更容易被奴役的目标。

So, raiders would concentrate on those populations.

所以,掠夺者会集中攻击这些种群。

Areas of Africa with stronger governments and more centralized organization, were not raided, as their responses were too dangerous. An organized force would respond.

非洲那些政府权力更大、组织更集中的地区没有受到袭击,因为他们有一支有组织的部队会做出反击。

This would be analogous to the British taking American revolutionary war soldiers into forced service, as America could not protect them, etc.

这将类似于英国把美国独立战争的士兵强迫服役,因为美国不能保护他们等等。

And, of course, native Americans were taken into slavery in huge numbers…for the same basic reasons.

当然,美洲原住民也因为同样的基本原因而被大批奴役。

Jeff Hall
I don't believe they were enslaved any more or less than any other people, but they were preferred as slave labor in the southern US because of malaria. Initially, settlers enslaved the Indians, but this being their native land, it was easy for them to run away. They tried enslaving Europeans, but they got malaria working in the fields and were thus unsuited for the work. But when Africans were enslaved in the US, they couldn't easily run off but they were resistant to malaria.

我不认为他们比其他人种人更多或更少地被奴役,但是在美国南部,他们因为对疟疾拥有抵抗力而成为奴隶劳动力。最初,殖民者奴役印第安人,但这是他们的故乡,他们很容易皆可以逃跑。他们试图奴役欧洲人,他们在田里工作时容易感染疟疾,因此不适合干这项工作。但是当非洲人在美国被奴役时,一是他们不能轻易逃跑,二是他们对疟疾有抵抗力。

While there has been a long tradition of viewing any group with different features as alien and lesser: this really didn't come into play in a serious way until the slave trade started to be shut down. As fewer and fewer new slaves arrived breeding slaves intentionally became more of a thing to do. And as that horrific practice came into conflict with the national ideals of liberty and equality more and more racism was pressed into service as a means of solving the issue ‘slaves couldn't be free becuse they were less than human' was the solution. This got ever hyped up until the nation broke out in bloody Civil War.

长期以来,人们一直认为任何具有不同特征的群体都是异类或次要群体: 直到奴隶贸易被禁止,这种观点才真正开始发挥作用。随着新来的奴隶越来越少,有意识地繁殖奴隶变得越来越重要。随着这种可怕的做法与自由和平等的国家理想发生冲突,越来越多的种族主义被迫成为解决问题的手段,奴隶不可能自由,因为他们不如人类。直到血腥的南北战争爆发前,这件事一直被大肆宣传。
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Alan Johnson
Is it actually true that africans have been used as slaves dispoprotionatly?

非洲人真的比其它人种更多被奴役吗?

Many arguably most cultures throughout history have used slaves and most of them were not Africans. The roman slave traded dwarved the African slave trade and was mostly from europe.

可以说,历史上大多数文化都使用奴隶,其中大多数不是非洲人。罗马奴隶贸易相比非洲奴隶贸易更严重,而且大部分奴隶来自欧洲。
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The slave trade from western Africa arose because when europeans started trading extensively with west africa the Africans already had well established slave trading networks and economies and this was the most natural thing to trade for european goods. This slave trading was driven by supply not, at least initially, by demand.

奴隶贸易起源于西非,因为当欧洲人开始与西非进行广泛的贸易时,非洲人已经建立了完善的奴隶贸易网络和经济,这是最自然的欧洲货物贸易。这种奴隶贸易是由供应驱动的,而不是需求驱动的,至少在最初是这样。

The interesting thing behind this is the widespread perception that slavery was something introduced by western countries and the US, that it was otherwise rare and that it was almost always black slaves owned by white masters. All of this is completely false, slavery was almost ubiquitous in history, every group have been used as slaves, western and US countries are unusual in their rejection and suppression of slavery rather than their use of it. An example that astound smost people because of
this is the North African slave trade which involved large numbers of white europeans being taken by African slavers and sold in African slave markets. This was actually contempory with the west african slave trade to the US.

这背后有趣的是,人们普遍认为奴隶制是由西方国家和美国引入的,在其他国家很少见,而且几乎拥有黑奴的主人都是白人。所有这些都是完全错误的,奴隶制在历史上几乎无处不在,每个群体都被当作奴隶使用过,西方和美国国家反对和镇压奴隶制而不是使用奴隶制是不同寻常的。一个让大多数人感到震惊的例子就是北非奴隶贸易,大量的欧洲白人被非洲奴隶贩子带走,在非洲奴隶市场上贩卖。这实际上与西非对美国的奴隶贸易是同时期的。

This false or at least very incomplete view of history leads to odd questions like this one.

这种错误的或者至少是非常不完整的历史观导致了像这样奇怪的问题。

Oleg
It is far simpler and more brutal then that.

那时的情况要简单得多,也更加残酷。

Notice how black slaves were used mostly in the New World colonies?

注意到新大陆殖民地是如何大量使用黑奴的吗?

Now, imagine you are a Native American slave. You know the land and can live off it easily. Run into the forest or prairie and you’re free again. Little chance they’re going to catch you.

现在,想象你是一个美洲原住民奴隶。你熟悉这片土地,可以很容易地靠它生活。你可以跑进森林或草原,这样你就自由了。他们抓住你的机会很小。

Imagine you’re a white slave. You escape into the town or countryside. You mingle in between, settle somewhere. There were many desperate people and people on therun. You won’t stand out much. You can have a job, build a house and unlikely to get caught.

想象你是一个白人奴隶。你逃到城镇或乡村。你混在人群中,在某个地方安顿下来。那里同样有许多绝望的人和逃亡的人。你不会引人注目的。你可以有一份工作,建一所房子,而且不会被抓到。

Imagine you are black and were brought from Africa. You know nothing of this land. Your very color and looks will betray that you are a slave on the run. Way harder to escape and stay free and alive. That’s the whole point.

想象一下,你是一个从非洲来的黑人。你对这片土地一无所知。你的肤色和外表会暴露出你是一个逃亡的奴隶。这使你更难逃脱,更难保持自由和活着。这才是关键。

Brian Newman
The thing to remember is that slavery has occurred all over the world and slavers have been of all races. Even in the United States, white slaves existed.

需要记住的是,奴隶制在世界各地都有发生,奴隶主来自各个种族。甚至在美国,白人奴隶也存在。

Mauritania still has legal slavery. Slave owners are black and Muslim.

毛里塔尼亚仍然有合法的奴隶制,奴隶主是黑人和穆斯林。

But, of course, your school isn’t teaching you real history. So, you were probably never taught any of this.

当然你的学校并没有教你真正的历史。所以,你可能从来没有学过这些。

What slavers will do is target people who can’t defend themselves and, due to widespread corruption and wars in Africa, Africa has rampant poverty and poor people are relatively easy to enslave.

奴隶贩子的目标是那些无法保护自己的人,由于非洲普遍存在的腐败和战争,非洲贫穷猖獗,穷人相对容易被奴役。

Pete Stollery
Africans were prolific in selling other Africans to the rest of the world.

非洲人大量地把其他非洲人卖给世界其他地方。

The justification for slave ownership in Christian countries (and colonies) seems to be that the slaves were pagan and therefore not to be accorded the same respect or right of freedom as Christians.

基督教国家(和殖民地)拥有奴隶的理由似乎是,奴隶是异教徒,因此不能像基督教徒那样得到同样的尊重或自由权。

A small number were freed having converted to Christianity, the vast majority weren’t.

少数人在皈依基督教后获得自由,而绝大多数人没有。
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A similar mindset existed in the more prolific Arab slave trade by Muslims, who enslaved anybody who wasn’t Muslim, their justification being verses of the Qur’an.

类似的思维模式存在于大量的阿拉伯穆斯林奴隶贸易中,他们奴役任何非穆斯林人,他们的正当理由是《古兰经》的诗句。

All continents had slavery, and slaves originated from all continents, Africa is not unique.

所有大陆都有奴隶制,奴隶来自世界各地,非洲并非独一无二。

Today there are more slaves than at any point in history, most live in Africa, The Middle East, South Asia and East Asia.

今天的奴隶比历史上任何时候都多,大多数生活在非洲、中东、南亚和东亚。

Richard Pagano
Well actually, Native Americans were used and their enslavement preceded the beginnings of the African slave trade. The Spaniards enslaved many of the Mexican tribes. The Catholic church eventually acted to end Native American slavery, which forced the the wealthy planters and mine owners to turn to Africa as a source of slave labor.

事实上,美洲原住民被当做奴隶使用过,他们的奴役早于非洲奴隶贸易的开始。西班牙人奴役了许多墨西哥部落。天主教会最终采取行动结束了美洲原住民的奴隶制,这迫使富有的种植园主和矿主转向奴役那些来自非洲的劳动力。

Pete Stollery
Richard, Native Americans enslaved each other for centuries before European colonists arrived.

在欧洲殖民者到来之前,美洲原住民相互奴役了好几个世纪。

Albert Lewis
An attempt was made to enslave Native Americans, but too many of them died from diseases they’d never encountered before coming in contact with Europeans.

有人试图奴役美洲原住民,但是他们中太多人死于在与欧洲人接触之前从未遇到过的疾病。

(It was also easier for Native Americans to escape because they were a lot more familiar with their surroundings than Europeans were. But, on the other hand, newly bought Africans were new to the land, so they didn’t know where to run away to.)

(美洲原住民也更容易逃离,因为他们比欧洲人更熟悉周围的环境。但是,另一方面,被购买的非洲人对这块土地是不熟悉的,所以他们不知道逃到哪里去。)

On the other hand, Africans had already been in some contact with Europeans and those diseases, so they were already pretty resistant to them.

另一方面,非洲人已经与欧洲人和这些疾病有过一些接触,所以他们对这些疾病已经有了很强的抵抗力。

Craig Lebamoff
Good answer, but don’t forget: in the long history of slavery, many white people were slaves also. The corsairs/Barbary pirates that sparked the US first foreign intervention were taking as slaves Christian “white people” at the same time the nomads of Turkestan were taking many Christian Slavs as slaves. Not to mention the long history of the Ottomans and Persians taking as slaves people of many races.

很好的回答,但是不要忘记: 在奴隶制的漫长历史中,很多白人也是奴隶。海盗/巴巴里海盗引发了美国的第一次外国干涉,他们把基督教徒当作奴隶,同时土耳其斯坦的游牧民族把许多基督教人当作奴隶。更不用说奥斯曼帝国和波斯帝国将不同种族的人民当作奴隶的漫长历史了。

Bill Taylor
The term slave comes from the word “Slav”. The ottomans and their allies the tartars raided the Ukraine and Russia for slaves . The Barbary coast pirates, another ally of the ottomans, raided Italy Greece and Dalmatia for slaves. The ottomans used to raid sub-Saharan Africa for slaves. Even sold them to Europeans. Eventually Europeans bought directly from African chieftains. Slavery was and still be big business. Blacks as slaves are easy to identify. They are black. In a white world they stand out. An ugly business.

“奴隶”一词来源于“Slav”。土耳其人和他们的盟友鞑靼人为了奴隶袭击了乌克兰和俄罗斯。奥斯曼帝国的另一个盟友巴巴里海盗为了奴隶袭击了意大利、希腊和达尔马提亚。奥斯曼人过去常常突袭撒哈拉以南非洲,抢夺奴隶,甚至把一些奴隶卖给了欧洲人。最终,欧洲人直接从非洲酋长手中购买奴隶。奴隶制过去是现在仍然是一个大行业。作为奴隶的黑人很容易识别。他们皮肤是黑色的。在白人的世界里,他们显得很突出。真是一个丑陋的生意。

Kenneth Turner
They tried to use native Americans but they new the country and was easy for them to escape elsewhere it was better to bring Africans to a new land and had no way of escape back to Africa.

他们试图奴役美洲原住民,但原住民更容易逃跑,因为他们对这片大陆更熟悉。而那些非洲人被带到一个新的大陆,他们对此并不熟悉,也没有办法逃回非洲。

Jake Holman
Africans were used because they were used to working in hot, tropical conditions. Native Americans knew the country and would simply walk off the job and into the wilderness and back to safety.

非洲人被奴役是因为他们习惯于在炎热的热带条件下工作。美洲原住民对这个国家了如指掌,他会抛下,逃进荒野,回到安全的地方。Claire Jordan

They wanted workers who were resistant to tropical diseases and able to work under a hot sun, and there were African warlords willing to sell their neighbours. And Europeans and Native Americans were too much trouble. Europeans had to be paid to come, otherwise their governments would start a war over it, and it was too easy for Native Americans to just melt away into the countryside and then walk home.

他们需要能抵抗热带疾病并能在烈日下工作的工人,而且有非洲军阀愿意出售他们邻国的人民。欧洲人和美国美洲原住民别用做奴隶太麻烦了。欧洲人必须得到报酬才能来这里,否则他们的政府会因此发动一场战争,而对于美洲原住民来说,他们很容易消失在乡下然后步行回家。

Jonah Watson
They did try enslaving native Americans at first, however it failed because the native Americans kept dying of new diseases.

他们一开始的确试图奴役美洲原住民,但是失败了,因为美洲原住民不断死于新的疾病。

Enslaving Europeans wasn't done because they weren't used to working under the hot climate and also because those Europeans were needed as settlers in the New World. Also, in Christianity, Christians can't enslave other Christians.

奴役欧洲人也不行,因为他们不习惯在炎热的气候下工作,还因为这些欧洲人是新大陆的定居者。而且,在基督教中,基督徒不能奴役其他基督徒。

That left Africans, which seemed perfect for the Europeans. They were adapted to hot climate, had strong immune systems and were in abundance. Many African local leaders were happy to sell off other captured Africans in exchange for firearms, meaning these Africans were easy and cheap to obtain, leading to an industrial scale enslavement of Africans.

这就只剩下非洲人了,非洲人对欧洲人来说似乎是完美的。他们适应炎热的气候,有强大的免疫系统,并且数量充足。许多非洲当地领导人乐于出售其他被抓获的非洲人以换取火器,这意味着这些非洲人很容易获得,也很便宜,导致了非洲人被大量奴役。

Edmund Grondine
Ah, but they did enslave Native Americans.

啊,但是他们确实奴役了美洲原住民。

Traj Groove
The enslavement of Native Americans was more common in Canada. Europeans were put into indentured servitude (slavery until they payed off their debts).

在加拿大,对美洲原住民的奴役更为普遍。欧洲人被迫接受契约劳役(奴隶制,直到他们还清债务为止)。

Uncle Justin
Oh but they did. Ever hear of indentured servitude?

但是他们确实奴役了美洲原住民。你听说过契约劳役吗?
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People sold their children and sometimes younger siblings to work for free for a set period of time. These people were legal property of the person they were sold to.

人们卖掉自己的孩子,有时甚至是弟弟妹妹,让他们在规定的时间内免费工作。这些人是他们被卖给的人的合法财产。

Ben Franklin was one of these. Indentured to his much older brother for a period of nine years.

本 · 富兰克林就是其中之一,他与比他大得多的哥哥签订了为期九年的契约。

He was abused, beaten, forced to work long hours and his inventions and ideas stolen and plagiarized by his older brother.

他受到虐待,殴打,被迫长时间工作,他的发明和创意被他的哥哥剽窃。

Franklin finally escaped and ran away to Philadelphia.

富兰克林终于逃脱了,逃到了费城。Margaret McDavid
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The majority of slave holders in America were in the South, where the heat and humidity were (and still are) brutal. The plantations first grew indigo, then changed to rice, because those commodities were in great demand in Europe and the other colonies. Those crops grow only in the coastal areas of the South.

美国大多数奴隶主都生活在南方,那里的炎热和潮湿曾经(现在仍然)残酷无情。种植园首先种植靛蓝,然后改种大米,因为这些商品在欧洲和其他殖民地需求量很大。这些作物只生长在南部沿海地区。
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Europeans could not withstand the working conditions, and as another answer mentioned, Natives were hard to capture, and they wouldn’t work, they’d escape and go home.

欧洲人无法忍受工作条件,正如另一个答案提到的,当地人很难被捕获,他们不会工作,他们会逃跑回家。

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