个人对中国076两栖攻击舰的一些看法
2022-11-13 骑着毛驴到处走 18357
正文翻译

One of the most recent and fast-moving credible rumors to come from the online communities watching the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) is a new landing helicopter dock (LHD) type vessel dubbed the 076. This 076 class LHD was first brought to the attention of the community in mid-2020, and in a rather unprecedented fashion a number of official request for proposal documents were found, and some credible insiders with established track records began to speak about the details of 076. It then reached a number of overseas and English language news outlets.

最近中国的网络上传言解放军(PLA)计划建造一款新的直升机航母/两栖攻击舰,被称为076型。
关于076型直升机航母的消息在2020年年中突然出现,引起中社会的注意,并伴随流出若干官方采购文件,一些比较可靠的内部消息人士也开始谈论076的细节。随后,一些海外和英语新闻机构也报道了076型直升机航母。

The 076 is described as an LHD – following on from, or perhaps complementing, the 075 class LHD – however, it is believed to be capable of conducting fixed wing flight operations via electromagnetic catapult (EMCAT) and arresting gear. Indeed, the greatest difference between the 076 compared to the 075 LHD, or other LHDs such as the U.S. Navy’s Wasp or America classes, is that the 076 is described as providing a similar capability as the F-35B gave to U.S. Navy LHDs, but without using a vertical short take off and landing (VSTOL) aircraft.

076型被称为是075型直升机航母/两栖攻击舰的后续升级型号,然而,与075不同的是,076据称将安装电磁弹射器(EMCAT)和拦阻装置,以起降舰载固定翼战斗机。
考虑到中国没有像F35B那样能够短距起飞/垂直起降的舰载机,
那么与075型甚至美国的“黄蜂”级“美国”级直升机航母相比,076型的最大作用,就是提供一种新的作战能力,使得中国未来的舰载机也能在直升机航母上起降。

As if it was not already rather jarring to consider an LHD equipped with catapults and arresting gear – essentially making such a ship technically a “CATOBAR” carrier (Catapult Assisted Take Off But Arrested Recovery) – those same insiders then revealed the primary fixed wing complement of 076 would consist of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, or UCAVs for combat). Specific types of UAVs and UCAVs included a flying wing UCAV (possibly a navalized derivative of the GJ-11, a mockup of which was shown at the 70th anniversary National Day parade in 2019), as well as a conventional high altitude long endurance UAV known as “Wind Shadow,” which has previously been observed at the catapult testing facility at the Chinese Navy’s (PLAN’s) Huangdicun naval air station.

装备弹射器和拦阻装置的076型,本质上已经是一艘“弹射”航母了。
一些内部人士透露,076型的主力舰载机将由侦查无人机和战斗无人机组成。具体的型号可能是攻击11无人机的海军版本(中国在2019年国庆70周年阅兵式上展示过),以及另一种名为“风影”的常规高空长航时无人机,此前在中国海军航空兵荒地村空军基地的弹射测试设施中,观察到了这种无人机。

A floodable well deck is also explicitly described, enabling the deployment of vehicles and amphibious craft from ship to land. A well deck is one of the cardinal features expected for a ship with an amphibious assault mission, and its inclusion aboard the 076 points to it still deserving the classic “LHD” designation. Furthermore, credible insiders have spoken of the 076 still as an “amphibious assault ship” like 075.
The aforementioned EMCAT and the arresting gear are the most noteworthy subsystems relevant to flight operations. However, other subsystems documented include a munitions elevator and a flight deck elevator capable of supporting a weight of 30 tons. Also mentioned is a “UAV deck.”

076型依然保留有井甲板,其携带的车辆和两栖运输艇,可以实行两栖登陆作战。井甲板是判断舰艇能否执行两栖攻击任务主要特征之一,因此,076型仍然符合“两栖攻击舰”的定义。此外,可靠的内部人士也称,076型仍然是一艘类似075型的“两栖攻击舰”。
人们大都将注意力集中在076型的电磁弹射和拦阻装置上。然而,更值得注意的是,其他相关文件表示,076型还将安装一个弹药升降机,和一个能够支持30吨重量的甲板升降机。文件中还提到了“无人机甲板”。

The immediate area of contention for the 076 LHD is whether its fixed wing capability should be secondary to its function as an amphibious assault ship or if it should be primarily be considered a medium aircraft carrier. Similar debates exist for other navies as well, such as the USN, whose LHDs can function as medium aircraft carriers when operating large complements of VSTOL jets like F-35Bs or Harriers.

目前,围绕076型的争议,主要集中在076型的任务定位上。
人们争论076型到底应该扮演两栖攻击舰的角色,还是扮演中型航空母舰的角色。
其他国家海军也存在类似的争论,比如美国海军,当装备有鹞式战斗机或F35B时,美国的直升机航母/两栖攻击舰,其实也可以充当中型航母的角色。

However, there are also key differences between an LHD and a proper carrier. The flight deck geometry and area of an aircraft carrier are typically far greater than those of an equivalently sized LHD, and feature greater reinforcement and arrested recovery gear as well. Most international LHD designs in the world conversely do not have their flight decks extend significantly beyond the hull width, whereas a carrier’s flight deck does. Larger flight deck area and “carrier” flight deck geometry enables more efficient and higher tempo fixed wing flight operations. The presence of an angled flight deck aboard aircraft carriers is one of the more obvious examples of this.

然而,直升机航母/两栖攻击舰,和真正的航空母舰有很大的区别。
真正的航空母舰,其飞行甲板的面积和几何形状,通常比同等吨位的直升机航母/两栖攻击舰大得多,并且安装有更大的弹射器和拦阻回收装置。
世界上大多数国家的直升机航母/两栖攻击舰,它们飞行甲板的宽度没有明显超出自身船体的宽度,而真正航母的飞行甲板宽度,会明显超出自身船体的宽度。
更大的飞行甲板面积和几何形状,使得舰载机的起降更高效、节奏更快。
真正的航空母舰,都会安装倾斜飞行甲板,这就是一个比较明显的例子。

Aircraft carriers typically require greater top speeds than LHDs, in turn requiring more powerful prime movers. At this stage, it is not known whether the 076 will have an angled flight deck; however the emphasis on its primary LHD role suggests the flight deck will also have more similarities with an LHD than a true aircraft carrier.

真正的航空母舰,最大航行速度要比直升机航母/两栖攻击舰更快,也就是说,真正的航空母舰会安装动力更强劲的发动机。
目前,我们还不知道076是否会有斜角飞行甲板;然而,就目前的信息来看,076型似乎更偏重两栖攻击作战,所以我认为076型不会像真正的航空母舰那样,安装斜角飞行甲板。

Therefore, the current body of evidence suggests the 076 will be an LHD first, and a CATOBAR carrier second, with its CATOBAR provisions seeking to provide fixed wing aerial capabilities to enable the 076 to carry out its amphibious assault role. The 076 might still be capable of fielding an airwing made up of a large fixed wing aerial complement, but may lack the flight deck area to operate as efficiently as a true medium aircraft carrier.

因此,076型首先是一艘两栖攻击舰,其次才是一艘弹射航母。安装弹射器,更多是能让固定翼舰载机在076上起降,使076型的两栖战力成倍增加。
所以,076型的飞行甲板可能还是全通式甲板,而不会有(中型)航空母舰的斜角甲板。

Why Not VSTOL?
One might then ask why the PLAN would seek to integrate these subsystems onto an LHD to operate fixed wing flight aircraft, rather than going the route of the USN and developing a VSTOL fighter such as the F-35B.
Indeed, one might be forgiven for thinking that developing a VSTOL fighter is the most sensible and easiest route to provide LHD sized ships with a fixed wing capability. However, the development of a new VSTOL combat aircraft is far from fast or inexpensive, and given the Chinese aerospace industry has never developed a VSTOL combat aircraft in the past, this would represent a significant undertaking. Indeed, while the Chinese aerospace industry has conducted pre-research into VSTOL, the path to develop a viable VSTOL combat aircraft would be long and costly and fraught with risk and delay.

可能有人会问,为什么解放军要在在076型上装那么多子系统,只为了能够起降固定翼舰载机,而不是走美国海军的路线,开发一种能够短距起飞/垂直降落的舰载机,如F-35B。
人们一般会认为,开发一款VSTOL(能够短距起飞/垂直降落的)战斗机,是提升076型战斗力最明智和最简单的途径。
然而,想要开发一款VSTOL战斗机,需要花费大量时间和资金。
开发VSTOL战斗机,是一项重大的工程项目。事实上,尽管中国之前已经对VSTOL战斗机进行了预研,但开发VSTOL战斗机的道路仍将是漫长而昂贵的,不仅充满风险,还可能超出预定期限。
原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.cn 转载请注明出处


Furthermore, any VSTOL capable “combat aircraft” must also be sufficiently capable and survivable in the relevant threat environment. For the modern threat environment into the 2020s and decades beyond, such an aircraft would inevitably require a high level of stealth and capable sensors and weapons. Developing a fifth generation strike fighter is within the Chinese aerospace industry’s capability; developing such an aircraft that is also VSTOL capable is something else entirely. Not to mention, such an aircraft would require a sufficiently high performance turbofan .

此外,考虑到2020年后至未来几十年的空战环境,所有的战斗机都需要隐形能力和先进的雷达和武器。中国已经发展出了第五代战斗机,这些对中国来说不是难事。但要把这些整合在VSTOL(能够短距起飞/垂直降落的)战斗机上,就是另一回事了。
更不用说,VSTOL战斗机对发动机的性能,有着极高的要求。

The procurement potential for a dedicated VSTOL fighter is also somewhat limited. Even generously assuming the PLAN eventually pursues a fleet of 10 LHD ships similar to the Wasp or America class capable of operating a hypothetical VSTOL fighter, the total number of VSTOL fighters needed to outfit 10 such ships would number less than 200. Devoting time, expertise, funds and industry to the development of such a unique aircraft with such a relatively limited production run would not make sense, unless other branches in the PLA also procured this aircraft or if China designed this aircraft with export in mind.

另外,即使研发出来,中国对VSTOL(能够短距起飞/垂直降落的)战斗机的采购量终归有限。即使大胆地假设,中国最终建造10艘直升机航母/两栖攻击舰(类似于“黄蜂”级或“美国”级),那么10艘这样的舰艇,所需的VSTOL战斗机总数也只有不到200架。
为了200架飞机,投入大量时间,专业技术,资金和工业是没有意义的,除非中国解放军其他军种也采购VSTOL战斗机,亦或者中国考虑出口自己研发的飞机。

The unmanned nature of UCAVs and UAVs may also mitigate certain disadvantages of operating fixed wing aircraft aboard an LHD sized ship with a suboptimal flight deck. For example, the longer endurance of unmanned aircraft may reduce the need for higher tempo flight operations and sortie rates that manned aircraft could demand, which an LHD would be incapable of executing in the first place. Furthermore, unmanned aircraft tend to be able to attain greater endurance and range than equivalent weight fifth generation manned fighters as a reflection of their different competing requirements; after all, a flying wing UCAV does not need to sustain a pilot, or be capable of sustaining high Gs, nor is it required to attain supersonic speeds.

相反,使用无人侦查机和无人战斗机,要比固定翼舰载机存在一些优点。
例如,无人机的续航时间更长,相比固定翼舰载机高节奏的飞行操作和出动率,无人机的需求更低。
此外,无人机往往拥有比同等重量的第五代载人战斗机更大的续航力和航程。毕竟,无人机不需飞行员,也不需要过载机动,速度也不需要达到超音速。

In other words, a UCAV with competitive and relevant combat radii, endurance, and payload could enjoy a significantly lighter weight compared to a manned fifth generation fighter, reducing the rating (and thus potentially size and power consumption) of the 076’s EM catapult and arresting gear. For example, a full sized aircraft carrier may be required to launch fully loaded, 30-plus ton manned combat aircraft; however, the 076’s catapults may be less powerful and only capable of launching aircraft up to 20 tons
Finally, a fleet of carrier-borne UCAVs and UAVs would be capable of operating from both 076s as well as future catapult aircraft carriers (003 and onwards). This opens up the potential for a larger production run and cross deck operations and flexibility as well.

换句话说,与第五代载人战斗机相比,无人机在作战半径、续航性和有效载荷方面,更具竞争力,重量也更轻。
076型上的电磁弹射器和拦阻装置,也可以相应减少尺寸和功耗。
打个比方,一艘大型航空母舰可以弹射30吨以上的,满载燃料和弹药的舰载机;而076的弹射器可能动能较小,只能弹射20吨以下的无人机。
最后,无人机编队可以在076型,以及中国未来的003航母上起降。这为更大规模的生产和跨甲板(航母)起降提供了发展潜力,也带来了灵活性。

One of the most controversial questions surrounding the 076 is whether it will be capable of operating the manned aircraft that the PLAN’s future large deck CATOBAR carriers will field, such as the future FC-31 derived carrier-borne fighter. The expected relatively small size and limited geometry of the 076’s flight deck makes it unlikely the ship will routinely operate manned fixed wing aircraft, and the likely downrated catapults and arresting gear means it will be unable to launch and recover manned aircraft at their maximum loads. However, in theory, the 076 could still launch and recover manned aircraft with reduced loads, and offer the option to operate a limited number of manned aircraft in an ad hoc capacity if a specific mission requires it.

围绕076型还有一个极具争议的问题,就是如果中国未来制造出新一代舰载机,比如以FC-31(歼31)为基础开发的舰载机。076型是否有能力起降中国新的舰载机。
预计076的飞行甲板相对较小,几何形状有限,这使得076不太可能起降有人驾驶的固定翼舰载机。而缩小的弹射器和拦阻装置意味着,076将无法弹射和拦阻携带最大载荷的舰载机。
当然,从理论上讲,当舰载机减少携带燃料和武器弹药时,076是可以弹射和降落舰载机的。
也就是说,076在特定任务需要时,可以以临时航母的身份起降有限数量的载人战斗机。

Therefore, the current vision of the 076 represents a markedly different way of providing an LHD with fixed wing aviation capability compared to the U.S. Navy and other Western navies that operate F-35B or Harrier jump jets. Comparisons between the 076 and its Western contemporaries will likely be made in the future, as the 076 emerges as a more visible and concrete project; however, it is valuable early on to recognize that the 076’s airwing will not be designed to fulfill the same variety of air-to-air, strike, and ISR missions in the same supersonic capable package that F-35B is. Instead, the 076’s UCAV and UAV aircraft will likely emphasize longer endurance and longer range strike and ISR missions instead. The value of the two approaches can only be assessed in context of each navy’s own respective naval aviation and amphibious assault strategy.

因此,与美国海军和其他使用F-35B或鹞式战斗机的西方海军相比,在为直升机航母/两栖攻击舰选择固定翼舰载机的问题上,076代表了中国与西方不同的发展思路。
076的舰载机不会像F-35B那样,强调超音速空对空、空对地和监视侦查能力。
相反,076的无人机可能会强调更长的续航时间,更远的打击距离,以及监视侦查能力。
这两种思路,是中美考量各自海军航空部队和两栖攻击的战略规划后,发展而来的。其价值需要放在中美各自的战略背景下才能评估。

评论翻译
mr-wiener
Interesting ideas. I guess since unmanned craft are a lot cheaper than VSTOL and these medium sized carriers than super carriers the idea would be to flood the theatre with them.

有趣的想法。我猜中国人的想法是,建造无人驾驶的战斗机,要比有人驾驶的 VSTOL(短距起飞,垂直降落)战斗机便宜很多,而且建造中型航母要比超级航母便宜很多。

lijjili
putting catobar on a USS-America sized LHD speaks more to their inability to have credible stovl capability
Instead of solving the problem, they worked around it. If the end result achieves a good balance between cost/benefit, then good for them

美国在“美国”级两栖攻击舰上安装了电磁弹射器,表明了美国(F35B舰载机)的短距起飞能力也没有宣传的那般好。
中国人没有走美国人的路,而是选择了一种变通的方法。如果076最终在成本和收益之间取得了很好的平衡,那么对中国人来说是件好事

MiG-25
For example, you can have drones flying recon, which would be more capable than helicopters. Drones can also serve as air to air refuelers for fixed wing aircraft, or even refuel each other via a buddy system to extend range. Drones can also serve as flying arsenals that can be directed by manned aircraft. Stealthy drones could also pose a credible air to ground threat.
I'm frankly pretty surprised hearing about this, and I wonder if it will actually work out. it shows that the PLAN is very much interested in flying fixed wing aircraft off its LHDs despite their lack of vstol capable jets.

你可以让无人机执行侦察任务,它比直升机飞得更高,更快。无人机还可以作为空对空加油机,通过伙伴系统相互加油,以扩大航程。无人机还可以作为飞行武器库,可以由战斗机指挥。隐形无人机的空对地打击能力也是敌人需要严肃对待的。
坦率地说,听到这个消息我感到相当惊讶,我想知道076的思路是否真的会奏效。
076的出现,表明中国海军尽管缺乏VSTOL(短距起飞/垂直起降)舰载机,但却仍然渴望让固定翼舰载机从两栖攻击舰上起飞。

Col G. Lage Dyndal, LtCol T. Arne Berntsen, Pr S. Redse-Johansen
In the case of flying aircraft, we have learned that there are long lead times in educating pilots and operators. One of the greatest changes that will come from the development of autonomous drones is that military forces in the (near) future could develop great fighting power in much shorter timefrxs than previously. It is important to note – and many have – that creating the infrastructure and educating ground crew for operating drones is no cheaper or easier than it is to educate aircrew. However, once in place, the drone crew and operation centres would be able to operate large numbers of drones. Similarly, legacy manned aircraft would be at the centre of a local combat or intelligence system extended with drones serving, for example, in supportive roles for jamming, as weapons-delivery platforms or as a system of multi-sensor platforms. Moving beyond the past limitations of one pilot flying one aircraft or one crew flying one drone to a situation where one crew could control large amounts of drones would quite simply be groundbreaking.

我们知道,培训飞行员和武器操作员需要很长的时间。无人机发展带来的最大变化之一,就是在不久的将来,一个国家的军队可以用比以前短得多的时间,迅速得到一支强大的军事力量。
许多人已经注意到-建造基础设施和培训地勤人员操作无人机,并不比培训战斗机飞行员更便宜或更容易。然而,一旦一切准备就绪,无人机操作员就能够在指挥中心,操作大量无人机。
而传统的载人飞机将成为战争中的数据中心,无人机将发挥辅助作用,可以成为专门挂载导弹的武器库,也可以是电子侦察机。
这种组合,突破过去一名飞行员驾驶一架飞机,或一名无人机操作员驾驶一架无人机的限制,达到一名飞行员可以控制大量无人机,这将是非常具有开创性的。

bnav1969
AI can also augment normal actions. You don't need full autonomy, it can take certain actions independently. This is already likely to be feasible today. There definitely needs to a much heavier push to get proper silicon Valley techies into the DoD infrastructure. Unfortunately, political goals hamper this.
It's actually going to be an interesting development. If you have cheap AI enabled drones, you can conceivably have thousands of them (especially if they're on the Chinese coast). China is still far behind the US in pure AI/ML R&D but it's likely that in the future it could be another parallel pole of development.

无人机的AI可以自主操控常规飞行动作。你不需要一直操控无人机,它可以独立地执行某些行动。这在今天看来是可行的。
美国必须大力推动硅谷的技术人员与国防部合作研发无人机的AI技术。不幸的是,政治分歧阻碍了这一点。
未来无人机的发展将是一个有趣的过程。如果中国降低了自主无人机的制造成本,那么你可以想象的到,中国部署成千上万架无人机(尤其是在中国沿海地区)的情形。在人工智能的研发方面,虽然中国仍远远落后于美国,但在未来,中国的技术可能会与美国并驾齐驱。
原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.cn 转载请注明出处


Col G. Lage Dyndal, LtCol T. Arne Berntsen, Pr S. Redse-Johansen
Autonomous drones are not capable of reasoning in the human sense. They do not possess human consciousness. The requirements set out above appear to presume a “human in the loop” of the decision cycle. At some point during attack decisions, a human being must decide upon what to attack and how important the target is.
in some circumstances an autonomous weapons system may (lawfully) be “left alone” to operate for hours or days, while in other circumstances all autonomy ought to be shut off to rely on human judgment .

目前的自主无人机的AI不具备人类的推理能力。他们不具备人类意识。在攻击决策时,必须要由人类来决定攻击什么目标,以及评估目标的重要性。
在某些情况下,无人机可以被允许“自主”飞行几个小时或几天,而在另一些情况下,无人机的自主操作权限会被关闭,无人机操作员会接管操纵权。

On the other hand, it could also be argued that using autonomous drones is not just acceptable from a moral perspective but even morally preferable to human soldiers. Autonomous drones would be able to process more incoming sensory information than human soldiers and could therefore make more well-informed decisions. And since the judgments of machines would not be clouded by emotions such as fear and rage, it could possibly reduce the risk of war crimes that may otherwise have been committed by human soldiers.

另一方面,使用自主无人机从道德角度来看是可以接受的,在道德层面,AI要比人类士兵更可靠。自主无人机将能够处理比人类士兵更多的信息,因此可以做出更明智的决定。由于机器的判断不会受到恐惧和愤怒等情绪的影响,它可能会避免人类士兵可能犯下的战争罪的风险。

很赞 5
收藏