QA话题讨论:中世纪欧洲普通人平均有多少性伴侣?古罗马人和古希腊人呢?
2024-03-29 大号儿童 4409
正文翻译

Susanna Viljanen
Most sufficed with one (at time) and there were three reasons for it:

大多数人只满足于一个配偶,主要有三个原因:

1.The only known methods of contraception where the rhythm method and condoms. Without hormonal contraception, getting an unwanted pregnancy was simply too big a risk.

1. 当时唯一已知的避孕方法是节育法和避孕套。没有激素避孕药,怀上不想要的孩子是一个风险太大的问题。

2.There was no social security system for single parents. “Bastard” is a swear word for just this reason. Abortions could easily lead into death of the mother as well as the unborn child. Abortion was considered a murder.

2.没有单亲家庭的社会保障制度。“私生子”就是一个骂人的词,就是因为这个原因。堕胎很容易导致母亲和未出生儿童的死亡。墮胎被认为是一种谋杀。

Adultery was a crime, and in the Viking era Scandinavia it was a capital crime. Getting pregnant out of wedlock or as a result of adultery would mean death in the Viking society - and if a man was caught from fornication in flagranto delicti, he too would lose his head. The Christian society was more tolerant, but not much.

3.通奸是一种犯罪,在维京时代的斯堪的纳维亚,这是一种死罪。在维京人的社会里,未婚怀孕或因通奸而怀孕都意味着死亡—— 如果一个男人被抓到正在通奸,他也会被砍头。基督教社会更加宽容,但也不多。

On the other hand, people tended to marry young, everyone was supposed to marry, deaths and getting widowe[er]ed was commonplace, and widow[er]s would re-marry quickly. Divorces were rare, but did occur. Since family and extended family line had much stronger importance than it is today (your family was basically your only social security besides the Church), being single was ingredients for a catastrophe.

另一方面,人们倾向于年轻结婚,每个人都应该结婚,死亡和丧偶是司空见惯的,寡妇会很快再婚。离婚很少发生,但确实也会发生。由于家庭和家族关系比今天更加重要(在基督教会之外,你的家庭基本上是你唯一的社会保障),单身对于灾难是一个要素。
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Brothels were common, and noblemen tended to have mistresses besides their wives. This was not as common amongst the bourgeoisie, where inheritance of property was an issue and one single illegitimate son could ruin everything. Rape was a capital crime, but armies tended to commit mass rapes while on campaign.

妓院很常见,贵族嫖娼除了妻子还经常养情妇。这在资产阶级中并不常见,那里财产继承是一个问题,一个非嫡出子可能会毁掉一切。强奸是一种死罪,但军队在战役中往往会实施大规模强奸。

评论翻译
Niko Vasileas
It would be impossible to say “on average” because we are talking multiple nations, cultures, thousands of years of history and different classes—even commoners were not always in the same class. Also, while this is a bit disturbing we most consider consenting and non consenting sex partners.

“平均”这样说是不可能的,因为我们涉及多个国家、文化、数千年的历史和不同的阶层,即使普通人也并非总处于相同阶层。此外,虽然有点令人不安,但我们必须考虑到是否经过同意的性伴侣和非同意的性伴侣。

In antiquity and parts of the middle ages where slavery was common slaves could be used sexually by master or a member of the household. Invading armies were famous for raping and carrying off “war prizes.”

在古代和中世纪部分地区奴隶制普遍存在的情况下,奴隶可能会被主人或家庭成员性虐待。入侵的军队以强奸和掳走“战利品”而闻名。

Wives would probably be expected to only have had sex with a husband, which depending on the time and or place, may have simply been one man, or if widowed or divorced may have been married off to others. In some places—especially remote areas large families may marry off an unwanted, younger daughter who would be used as a sex slave often by her father-in-law or if her husband was much older.

妻子可能会被期望只与丈夫发生性关系,具体取决于当时的时间和地点,可能只是一个男人,或者如果变为寡妇或离婚可能会再嫁给其他人。在一些地方,尤其是偏远地区,大家庭可能会把一个不受欢迎的年轻女儿嫁掉,这个女儿可能会被作为性奴隶使用,通常是由她的岳父或者如果丈夫年龄较大的话。

At the same time prostitutes would have had several partners. In some cases they were pitied “soiled doves” in other they were sacred and worked out of temples, the “handmaidens of Aphrodite.”

同时,妓女可能会有几个性伴侣。在某些情况下,她们被怜悯为“被玷污的鸽子”,在其他情况下,她们被视为神圣,从神庙中工作,“阿芙洛狄忒的使女”。

Husbands would have had their wives and possibly access to prostitutes or mistresses. Homosexuality and bisexuality would have gone on, again depending on the time and place with varying degrees of approval, but disapproval of sex hasn’t ever stopped anyone before, then or since.

丈夫可能会有妻子,可能还可以接触妓女或情妇。同性恋和双性恋可能会存在,同样取决于时间和地点,对此的批评程度也不尽相同,但是对性的反感过去和现在都没能阻止任何人。
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Larry Jeffery
Considering how much the authorities tried to reduce it there must have been a lot. 20 per cent of the population in the Roman world were slaves, public sex not uncommon, bars were very common as we're brothels. You can still see sexual graphics on the walls of bars in Ostia , Pompeii and elsewhere. People always seem to have wanted sex. Ironically today in spite of all the prohibitions and obsessions illicit sex is common in Muslim countries.

考虑到当局试图减少性行为的频率,罗马世界人口中有 20% 是奴隶,公开性行为并不罕见,酒吧和妓院非常普遍。在奥斯提亚、庞贝等地的酒吧墙上仍然可以看到性相关的图像。人们似乎一直都渴望性爱。具有讽刺意味的是,尽管今天存在许多禁令和对违法性行为的执念,但在穆斯林国家非法性行为却很普遍。

Gwydion Madawc Williams
Everyone was under heavy social pressure to marry. The rich could also pay for sex and visit brothels, and the richest openly kept mistresses.
The Greek upper class included open homosexuality, but it seems not the lower classes. Likewise but less open for the Romans, and largely forbidden in media Europe.
Deaths and remarriages were also common - note the Wife of Bath in the Canterbury Tales.
Armies in all three did a lot of rape, particularly when cities were captures.

每个人都承受着巨大的社会压力去结婚。富人可以付费性交或去妓院,最富有的人甚至公开拥有情妇。古希腊上层阶级包括公开的同性恋,但似乎下层阶级没有。相似地,罗马人也有这种情况,但较少公开,而在中世纪欧洲则基本被禁止。死亡和再婚也很常见——可以看看《坎特伯雷故事集》中的巴斯夫人。三国的军队经常进行强奸,尤其是在攻占城市时。

Thomas Musselman
There was no Shere or Kinsey report to poll people but historians are confident that use of prostitutes was extremely common; how many people also engage in serial monogamy is not known.

没有谢尔或金斯利报告来调查民众,但历史学家确信使用妓女极为普遍;有多少人从事串轮制婚姻并不为人所知。

After the Punic war victory Paterculus observed “Rome gave herself up…to pleasure….Ovid, Virgin, Horace, Catullus, Tibullus and Petronius presented male-male and female-female sex in a manner that exemplified later Roman casual attitude toward such conduct.” Pompeii had 35 brothels alone.

在布匿战争胜利后,帕特库卢斯说:“罗马沉溺于...享乐之中…奥维德、维吉尔、荷拉斯、卡图卢斯、提布卢和彼特罗尼乌斯以一种后来罗马人对这种行为的随意态度为例展示了男男和女女性行为”。单单庞贝就有 35 家妓院。

And for “the ancient Greeks, the concept of sexual sin simply did not exist”. “Greek men were generally free to pursue premarital and extramarital sexual pleasure”. Women of the upper class were not. Brothels were common and legal.

对于“古希腊人来说,性罪的概念根本不存在”。“希腊男子通常可以追求婚前和婚外的性快感”。上层阶级的妇女则不行。妓院普遍存在且合法。

Clarence Sherrick
Such information is impossible to determine as records concerning such matters have never been compiled.
One could assume that such activity varied from individual to individual in each society.
There were plenty of brothels in the cities of ancient Greece and Rome, so sex for purchase was readily available if you could afford it.

这些资料是不可能确定的,因为从未编纂过有关这些事项的记录。人们可以假设,在每个社会中,这种活动因人而异。
在古希腊和罗马的城市里有很多妓院,所以只要你付得起钱,就可以随时买到性服务。

However, the average male in Catholic Medi Europe was a peasant farmer and due to the powerful religious proscxtion against pre-marital sex. he was, on average, very likely a virgin until marriage.

然而,在中世纪信奉天主教的欧洲,男性一般都是农民,而且由于宗教对婚前性行为的强烈禁止。一般来说,他在结婚前很可能是处男。

This did not occlude the occasional farm animal, hand usage and possibly an experiment with another male.
There were very likely a few attractive peasant males that probably notched their belts a few times with several precocious farm girls.
However, this was more likely to occur between well off upper class males instead. Males that had means had a far better chance of getting sex in any era..

这并不妨碍偶尔的农场动物,手的使用和可能与另一个男性的实验。
很可能有几个很有魅力的农家男子和几个早熟的农家女孩亲热过几次。
然而,这更有可能发生在富裕的上层社会男性之间。在任何时代,有能力的男性都有更好的机会做爱。

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Jim Chlier
The most concrete way to answer this question would be to do careful genetic analysis over time and see which DNA appears more or less often. Doubt anyone’s done that though.

回答这个问题最具体的方式可能是通过对时间进行仔细的基因分析,看看哪些DNA出现的频率更高或更低。不过我怀疑没有人做过这样的研究。

Consider that prostitution was an on-going concern, meaning not only that there were women having sex with lots of men, there were men out for sex outside relationships. Also, that that when we get records later, illegitimacy was pretty common. Then you look at the sexual behavior of people today from morally strict groups like Born-Again Christians - who certainly have adulterous affairs and out of wedlock children, though I don’t know specific figures (at least one couple of Christian singers got caught having an affair and of course Sarah Palin’s daughter, perhaps not born again, but certainly raised with an abstinence-only view, has had two children outside marriage). What this tells us, as does much hard data over time, is that a strict religion does not necessarily result in the corresponding behavior.

需要考虑到妓院业务一直都存在,这意味着不仅有女性与许多男性发生性关系,也有男性在婚外寻欢。此外,当我们后来得到记录时,非婚生子很常见。然后再看看今天那些道德观念严格的群体,比如新生重生基督徒,他们肯定也会发生通奸事件和非婚生子,尽管我不知道具体数字(至少有一对基督教歌手被发现曾经发生过婚外情,当然,莎拉·佩林的女儿,也许不是重生基督徒,但肯定是在独身主义观念下长大,已经生了两个非婚生子)。这些数据告诉我们,正统宗教信仰并不一定导致相应的行为。

Add all this up and I’m inclined to think men often had sex with at least their wife and often several other women over their lifetimes. Women had good reason to be more cautious, but again, children were born out of wedlock, so they weren’t always being careful either. Still, I’d guess fewer women had more than one partner, but it seems very likely many did.

综合考虑所有这些因素,我倾向于认为男性通常会与至少他们的妻子以及几个其他女性发生性关系。女性有充分的理由更加谨慎,但又一次地,非婚生子的发生告诉我们,她们并不总是小心翼翼。不过,我猜想与多个伴侣发生性关系的女性较少,但很可能有许多女性这样做过。

Gabriel W
There’s two factors; marriage and brothels. Neither the ancient Greeks/Romans nor medi Europeans practiced widespread polygamy in the way that the Egyptians or Mesopotamians did, so they were limited to one spouse. However, the different values of these civilizations also come into play. In medi Europe, Christian doctrine forbade all kinds of extramarital relations, but in antiquity, there was more freedom. Brothels were openly visited by all classes of society, and a man was allowed under Roman and Greek law to sleep with any of his servants, whether they liked it or not.
So, in short, the archetypal Medi citizen was limited to one partner, while the Greeks and Romans had more extramarital relations.

有两个因素:婚姻和妓院。古希腊/罗马人和中世纪欧洲人都没有像埃及人或美索不达米亚人那样普遍实行多配偶制,所以他们只能有一个配偶。然而,这些文明的不同价值观也起到了作用。在中世纪欧洲,基督教教义禁止一切婚外关系,但在古代,人们更加自由。妓院被社会各阶层公开造访,根据罗马和希腊法律,男人可以与任何自己的仆人发生性关系,无论对方是否愿意。
总而言之,典型的中世纪市民只能有一个伴侣,而希腊人和罗马人则有更多的婚外关系。

John Harland
This seems like a variant of the question “am I normal”?
It is very difficult to get accurate information about the sexual mores of most eras of history because while people’s sexual adventurousness covers a wide span from monogamous to utterly indiscriminate, most people of any era will be quiet about any deviation of their own behaviour from what their society regards as “normal”.

这似乎是“我正常吗”这个问题的一个变体?
要获得历史上大多数时代的性观念的准确信息是非常困难的,因为尽管人们的性冒险涵盖了从一夫一妻制到完全不分青红皂白的广泛范围,但任何时代的大多数人都会对自己的行为偏离社会所认为的“正常”保持沉默。

Bailey Mattson
This answers covers medi Europe only.
Well it really depends.
See the churches really hated sex. Like, they weren't just against prostitution. They were against all sex unless you were married and planned to have children.
But it varies. Prostitutes had many, many partners. But they're not “"average”, really.
The really common man/woman would have around one to two partners. Sex outside of marriage and without the spouse was very taboo, and while many men used brothels, many also were afraid to commit adultery.

这个答案只涵盖了中世纪的欧洲。
这要看情况。
教会真的很讨厌性。他们不只是反对卖淫。他们反对一切性行为,除非你已经结婚并计划要孩子。
但情况各不相同。妓女有很多很多的伴侣。但他们并不“一般”,真的。
真正普通的男人/女人大约有一到两个伴侣。婚外性行为和没有配偶的性行为是非常禁忌的,虽然许多男人去妓院,但许多人也害怕通奸。

Adulta Plus
We as a whole realize that cutting edge individuals didn't develop sex. Therefore, certain individuals have thought about the number of sexual accomplices it that was normal for individuals in antiquated and bygone eras to have inside their lifetimes.

作为一个整体,我们意识到尖端个体并没有发展出性。因此,某些人已经考虑过性共犯的数量,这在过去的时代是很正常的,在他们的一生中。
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This is a hard inquiry to respond to in light of the fact that the quantity of sexual accomplices that an individual in old or bygone eras had inside their lifetime relied upon a wide exhibit of variables, which incorporate the individual's character, orientation, and monetary status, as well as the overall setting in which the individual ended up living.

这是一个很难回答的问题,因为一个人在过去或过去的时代一生中拥有的性帮犯的数量取决于一系列变量,这些变量包括个人的性格、取向、经济状况,以及个人最终生活的整体环境。

Moreover, we don't actually have an adequate number of information to say precisely exact thing the "normal" number of sexual accomplices for an individual in the pre-current world was. The majority of our enduring proof comes from sources composed by friendly elites. This makes it considerably harder to know precisely the number of sexual accomplices it that was normal for customary individuals to have.

此外,我们实际上并没有足够的信息来准确地说,在当今世界,一个人的“正常”性帮犯的数量是多少。我们大多数持久的证据来自友好的精英人士。这使得人们很难准确地知道性帮凶的数量,而这对于习惯上的人来说是正常的。

Since there is such exceptional change across societies, for this article, I will zero in on what we are familiar the quantity of sexual accomplices individuals in old Greece could be anticipated to have. Large numbers of the things I'm going to say, however, can be applied from an overall perspective to other old societies too.

由于整个社会都有如此特殊的变化,在这篇文章中,我将把注意力集中在我们所熟悉的古希腊个体的性共犯数量上。然而,我要说的许多事情,也可以从整体的角度应用于其他旧社会。
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Character is likely the main element here by a wide margin. Similarly that individuals with various characters have various degrees of interest in having sexual accomplices today, exactly the same thing was valid in ancient times. There were a few men in old times who might engage in sexual relations with an alternate individual consistently if conceivable.

性格可能是这里的主要因素。同样,不同性格的人在今天对性共犯有不同程度的兴趣,这在古代也是完全一样的。在过去,如果可能的话,有一些男人可能会一直和另一个人发生性关系。

Ron William
The question might be rephrased as since biblical times which would include harems and etc which were actually owned/run by sexual traffickers.

这个问题可能会被改写为自圣经时代以来,包括后宫等实际上是由性贩子拥有/经营的。

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