是什么让罗马帝国持续了这么久?
2024-04-11 大号儿童 5128
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Ayan Mirza
The Roman Empire was long-lived for many reasons, some of which being new laws and engineering, military potency, and social legislation to combat political fragmentation along with exceptional leaders.

罗马帝国长寿的原因有很多,其中一些是新的法律和工程,军事力量,以及对抗政治分裂的社会立法,以及杰出的领导人。

The Age of Augustus saw the beginnings of the Roman Empire along with grand feats of architecture and a systematic principle for justification applicable to all people and their rights as citizens. The army of Rome was a fighting machine, marching across the provinces on well paved, one foot thick roads, and all the while drawing the lines of new provinces and towns along the way. The army continued to evolve in the Roman Empire as new emperors with effective leadership and organizational skills adopted new reforms, key to the success of the army and the empire.

奥古斯都时代见证了罗马帝国的开端,同时也见证了建筑的伟大壮举,以及适用于所有人及其公民权利的系统化辩护原则。罗马的军队是一架战斗机器,在铺砌良好、一英尺厚的道路上行军穿过各省,同时在沿途划定新的省份和城镇。罗马帝国的军队不断发展,新皇帝有有效的领导能力和组织能力,采取了新的改革措施,这是军队和帝国成功的关键。

The Five Good Emperors sustained a peaceful rule, treating citizens and the armament with civility and giving back to the Roman Empire. Their social organization led to the de-fragmenting of politics and their extensive building programs allowed Rome to live on for five hundred years.

五贤帝维持和平统治,以文明的态度对待公民和军备,回馈罗马帝国。他们的社会组织导致了政治的分裂,他们广泛的建筑计划使罗马得以生存了五百年。

Shay Dessie
A professional army that had Heavy Infantry capable of withstanding anything.
Example: you have 8,000 horse archers during the battle of Carrhae. With “infinite arrows”. Let say 30 arrows a archer witch is 240,000 arrows. (MEAN ASS ARROWS). Their was some 20,000 legionaries killed during the battle. So let’s say each legionaries shield had only 5 arrows embedded harmlessly into the shield. That would be roughly 100,000 arrows that did nothing but stick into the shields. Witch means the formation and shield wall DID its job.

这是一支拥有重装步兵,能够抵御任何东西的职业军队。
例如:在卡莱战役中,你有8000名骑射手。拥有“无穷的箭矢”。假设每名骑射手有30支箭,总共就是24万支箭矢。(非常多的箭矢)在战斗中大约有2万名军团士兵被杀。所以假设每个军团士兵的盾牌上只嵌入了5支箭,那将是大约10万支箭无法穿透盾牌。这意味着编队和盾墙发挥了作用。

leaving 140,000 arrows left to be loosed. We know injuries happened all over. So assuming that those injuries are apart of the 20,000 deaths. That would mean 7 Romans dead every volley. Witch is 54,000 arrows actually harmed the romans. (My math skills aren’t good at all). But I’m assuming that some 240,000 projectiles were indeed needed to kill 20,000 shield bearing soldiers. With 100,000 stopped those numbers are PRETTY DAMN GOOD. Thought this doesn’t proof the Roman legions success.
it helps bring my argument out their.

剩下14万支箭可以射出。我们知道伤害到处都有发生。假设这些伤是两万死者中的一部分。也就是说,每发子弹就有7个罗马人死亡。女巫是54000支箭实际上伤害了罗马人。(我的数学能力一点都不好)。但我假设大约需要24万枚炮弹才能杀死2万名拿着盾牌的士兵。有10万人被拦截,这些数字相当不错。虽然这并不能证明罗马军团的成功,但这有助于阐明我的论点。

Nikola Nikitovic
A combination of law and engineering, military force, and social legislation to combat political fragmentation along with exceptional leaders, allowed the long lived Roman Empire to become one of the greatest superpowers the world has ever seen.

罗马帝国之所以能够成为世界上最伟大的超级大国之一,是因为结合了法律和工程、军事力量和社会立法,以应对政治分裂,同时拥有优秀的领袖。

Main rule:
Divide et impera (lat)- Divide and rule -It was utilised by the Roman ruler Julius Caesar. During the Gallic Wars, Caesar was able to use a divide and conquer strategy to easily defeat the Gauls. The Romans invaded the Kingdom of Macedonia from the south and defeated King Perseus in the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC. Macedonia was then divided into four republics that were heavily restricted from relations with one another and other Hellenic states. A ruthless purge occurred, with allegedly anti-Roman citizens being denounced by their compatriots and forcibly deported in large numbers.

主要规则:
Divide et impera(拉丁语)- 分而治之 -这是由罗马统治者凯撒大帝利用的策略。在高卢战争期间,凯撒能够利用分而治之的策略轻松击败高卢人。罗马人从南方入侵了马其顿王国,并在公元前168年的皮德纳之战中击败了珀尔修斯国王。马其顿随后被分为四个共和国,它们在彼此之间和其他希腊城邦的关系受到严格限制。进行了残酷的清洗,据称反罗马的公民被同胞指控并被大规模驱逐。

Eric Behar
The main reason for the relative longevity of the Roman Empire roughly 600 years excluding pre republic period,is due to the lifestyle the Empire could offer to its subjects,if you want like a Roman Dream.This was fuelled by conquest economy with ever growing wealth to build the Romanised cities .

罗马帝国相对长久的主要原因大约是600年,不包括共和国前的时期,是因为帝国能够向其臣民提供的生活方式,如果你想要的话,就像罗马梦想一样。这种情况是由征服经济推动的,随着日益增长的财富来建设罗马化的城市。

However when a better seeming alternative appeared ,in this case the totally different lifestyle of Christianity the Empire crumbled and give way to Cristian Kingdoms,with the exception of the East which totally changed to become itself Christian,the Byzantine Empire,which will continue to exist till 1453 on the administrative base of the older Empire,but with a new faith.

然而,当出现了一个看起来更好的替代方案时,比如基督教这种完全不同的生活方式,帝国就崩溃了,为基督教王国让路,除了东部完全变成了基督教的拜占庭帝国之外。拜占庭帝国将在旧帝国的行政基础上继续存在,但信仰已经改变。

Mark Ollard
This would involve a long answer to be complete, but as a more concise answer, they did not assimilate and absorb, but instead, included regions into the protection of the empire and the receipt of Roman trade, and further rewarded them for progress toward the Roman ideal. Under the Augustan Franchise for instance, the Senate gave tax breaks or trade concessions to settlements that built Roman-style civic improvements like aqueducts or walls.

这需要一个较长的回答才能完整,但更简洁的答案是,他们并没有同化和吸收,而是将一些地区纳入帝国的保护范围,并获得了罗马贸易,同时对那些朝着罗马理想进步的地区给予奖励。例如,在奥古斯都特许权下,参议院给予那些建造了罗马式市政设施如引水渠或城墙的定居点税收优惠或贸易让步。

The interesting thing is Romanisation, which is largely a false premis, because Rome did not impose their own culture on provincials, just offered Roman civilisation as a superior and beneficial form of cooperation. However, what is unique about the empire was the widespread adoption of gladiatorial combat, which became a unifying concept, rather like football has become in our modern global culture, the setting up of arenas and holding games was a statement of Roman affiliation as much as politically advantageous to the sponsor and even financially profitable to suppliers of events (not the sponsor, he paid a huge amount of money to stage free entertainment).

有趣的是罗马化,这在很大程度上是一个错误的前提,因为罗马并没有强加他们自己的文化给省民,只是将罗马文明作为一种更优越和有益的合作形式提供给他们。然而,帝国的独特之处在于广泛采用角斗,这成为一种统一的概念,就像足球在我们现代全球文化中的地位一样,建立竞技场举办比赛既是一种罗马归属的表态,也在政治上有利于赞助者,对活动供应商甚至在财务上也是有利可图的(不是赞助者,他支付了巨额费用来举办免费娱乐活动)。

Dimitri
The Romans were really good at keeping peace throughout their empire. They treated people living in their empire good. Also, Rome had a really strong military, so anyone who revolts will be unsuccessful. These two reasons helped the Romans to avoid revolts. Also, their strong military could fight off invaders. All these reasons are why the Roman Empire lasted so long.

罗马人确实擅长在整个帝国范围内维持和平。他们善待生活在帝国内的人民。此外,罗马拥有非常强大的军事力量,因此任何反叛都是徒劳的。这两个原因帮助罗马避免了叛乱。此外,他们强大的军事力量可以击退入侵者。所有这些原因都是罗马帝国能够延续如此之久的原因。

Peter Ole Kvint
The Roman Empire was not a modern country, but 200 city-states centered around the city of Rome. When Rome came to the center it was because the city was a republic. Normal peace treaties were unfair to the weaker of two princes, and peace was revoked if one died. But the peace treaties with Rome were fair to both parties and they were eternally valid. So every time a new prince inherited his power, his starting point was peace with Rome, and no one wanted to be at war with Rome because Rome had peace with all other cities. And a war with Rome therefore would become a war against all others.
Virgines Vestales (pagan priestesses) were responsible for the peace treaties with the other cities even after Rome had become an empire.

罗马帝国不是一个现代国家,而是以罗马城为中心的约200个城邦。当罗马成为中心时,它是一个共和国。通常的和平条约对较弱的两个君主中的一方是不公平的,而且如果其中一方去世,和平条约也会被废除。但与罗马签订的和平条约对双方都是公平的,而且是永久有效的。因此,每当新的君主继承权力时,他的出发点就是与罗马和平相处,而且没有人愿意与罗马开战,因为罗马与所有其他城市都保持和平。即使在罗马成为帝国后,处女神殿的贞女(异教女祭司)仍然负责与其他城市签订和平条约。

By the year 394, Christianity had become so widespread that the emperor could close the Vesta temple. But in the year 410, the Roman army was destroyed. And there were no Virgines Vestales to summon the reserves from all the several hundred allied city-states. Therefore, the city had to surrender. So Christianity became the fall of Rome.

到公元394年,基督教已经变得如此普遍,以至于皇帝可以关闭维斯塔神庙。但是在公元410年,罗马军队被摧毁了。而且没有处女神殿的贞女可以召集来自数百个盟约城邦的后备军。因此,城市不得不投降。因此,基督教成为了罗马的覆灭。

Roy Boss
Every empire has its periods of weakness and of strength. It is not just that empires are strong at the beginning and weak later. Obviously they're strong at their foundation , but the later story is not just one of decline. What gives an empire longevity is surviving the crises. Often this is a matter of nit having two crises at the same time, suchbas an economic crisis and a barbarian invasion, or an internal rebellion and a period of harvest failure and plague. Rome was in real danger in the third century AD when it lost a war with the newly emergent Sasanian empire, was invaded by Goths and Franks and underwent a succession crisis with several short reigns and economic problems.. They survived because a succession of soldier emperors fought off the attackers and a great emperor , Diocletian reorganised the imperial adminstration. Rome’s advantage was that it was so big. It could afford rd to lose control if areas such as Gaul, the Balkans and Syria all at the same time because it could still count on Spain, Italy, Africa and Egypt. Attacks that took over provinces could still be reversed because the attackers were each individually taking over one province each and were not coordinated. Rome could deal with each in turn.

每个帝国都有其强盛和衰弱的时期。并不仅仅是帝国在开始时强大,后来变得虚弱。显然它们在建立初期很强大,但后来的故事并不只是衰落的一面。赋予一个帝国长久性的是其能够度过危机。通常这意味着不要同时遇到两个危机,比如经济危机和蛮族入侵,或者内部叛乱与丰收失败和瘟疫期间的危机等。公元三世纪时,罗马陷入了真正的危险,当时它在与新兴的萨珊王朝的战争中失败,遭到哥特人和法兰克人的入侵,并经历了一系列短暂统治和经济问题的继任危机。罗马之所以幸存下来,是因为一连串的军人皇帝击退了攻击者,伟大的皇帝戴克里先重组了帝国的行政管理。罗马的优势在于它的规模很大。即使失去了对高卢、巴尔干和叙利亚等地区的控制,罗马仍然可以依靠西班牙、意大利、非洲和埃及。攻击者夺取的省份仍然可以被收复,因为攻击者各自只是单独占领了一个省份,而不是协调一致行动。罗马可以依次处理每一个挑战。
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When , in the fifth century the Germans took over Gaul and Spain and Britain , or at least large parts of them , the killer was losing Africa to the Vandals. This left Italy on its own and too weak to reconquer the Western provinces.

当在五世纪时,德意志人占领了高卢、西班牙和不列颠,或者至少占据了其中大部分地区时,失去非洲给汪达尔人带来了致命打击。这让意大利孤立无援,无力重新夺回西部省份。

Lastly, an Empire is a big idea. To survive the recurrent waves of crisis needs an elite that believes in that big idea. Rome managed to maintain an elite that did that in the West ti 476 and in the East until 1453. In the West the upper classes gave up on the idea of Empire . They would not make sacrifices in the common cause. This has been attributed to Christianity weakening the idea of earthly success and repudiating military service and to the greed of a senatorial class who would not serve society and evaded taxes.

最后,帝国是一个伟大的理念。要度过不断的危机浪潮需要一个信奉这一伟大理念的精英阶层。罗马设法在西部保持了相信这一理念的精英阶层,直到476年,在东部则一直持续到1453年。在西部,上层阶级放弃了对帝国的理念。他们不愿意为共同的事业作出牺牲。这被归因于基督教削弱了对世俗成功的追求和对军事服务的否定,以及议员阶级的贪婪,他们不愿为社会服务,并逃避纳税。

Steve Jordan
Organization and inclusion.
The Empire was organized with road networks, efficient taxation, and bureaucracy which allowed economic growth and efficient governmental use of finance to develop infrastructure.
It also conferred the rights of Roman citizenship on those who chose to work on behalf of the Empire; in other words, everyone under Roman rule had the possibility of becoming a citizen, and thereby seeing themselves as members of the larger Empire.

组织和包容。罗马帝国通过建立道路网络、高效的税制和官僚机构,促进了经济增长,并有效利用财政资源发展基础设施。它还赋予选择为帝国服务的人罗马公民权;换句话说,在罗马统治下的每个人都有可能成为公民,从而将自己视为更大帝国的成员。
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Thomas Denson
I think the one quality that the Roman civilization had which was more responsible than any other in allowing it to survive so long was it’s ability to assimilate the people it conquered and make them into Romans. This quality allowed a tiny city state of a few thousand people to grow into a superpower of 50 million people, who considered themselves as Romans. This quality is a formula for success in growing a country and keeping it around for a long time. It has been successfully used by a lot of other countries: China, Russia, Turkey, the Arab Caliphate, the Inca Empire, and the United States.

我认为罗马文明比其他任何品质更能让它生存如此之久的一个品质就是它具有同化征服的民族并使他们成为罗马人的能力。这种品质使一个只有几千人的小城邦成长为一个有5000万人口的超级大国,这些人认为自己是罗马人。这种品质是成功发展一个国家并使其长期存在的秘诀。很多其他国家也成功地使用了这种方法:中国、俄罗斯、土耳其、阿拉伯哈里发国、印加帝国和美国。

Geoff Hughes
Very simple, they had a well disciplined society where the average person had a fairly good life and was somewhat happy. Thier army was well disciplined, organised and well fed and it's communication was also very good. Citizenship could be achieved by all, and was a thing that came with many privileges .In short,they were disciplined,respectful of themselves and prepared for war, so other races left them alone . I will finish with one question…How does our society of today measure up??????

非常简单,他们拥有一个纪律严明的社会,普通人过着相当幸福的生活。他们的军队纪律严明、组织有序、粮食供应充足,通讯也非常发达。所有人都有机会获得公民身份,并享有许多特权。简而言之,他们纪律严明,尊重自己,做好了战争的准备,因此其他种族放弃了对他们的侵略。我想以一个问题结束...我们今天的社会如何衡量?

Keith L.
Great question! Everyone always asks why the Roman Empire fell when they should be asking about why it lasted for so long, a point Gibbon made in “A History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire” too.

很好的问题!每个人总是问为什么罗马帝国灭亡,而他们应该问的是为什么它能够存在那么长时间,这正如吉本在《罗马帝国衰亡史》中所指出的一样。

The key to the Roman Civilization lasting so long was the combination of the deep patriotism of the Roman people with the Roman culture’s ability to encourage and produce so many innovations. From Cincinattus to Scipio to Eurysaces the baker, Roman citizens were dedicated to their country.

罗马文明能够长久存在的关键在于罗马人民对国家的深厚爱国情怀,以及罗马文化鼓励并创造如此多创新的能力。从辛辛纳图斯到西庇阿再到面包师Eurysaces,罗马公民都致力于他们的国家。

Diocletian, a man whose homeland was repeatedly invaded by the Romans, a man either born into slavery or born to parents who were born into slavery under the Romans, worked his way up to become emperor and LOVED Roman culture and tradition. Diocletian is remembered for his role in the persecution of Christians(I’m skeptical he actually ordered the persecutions, and I think Galerius was really the one who persecuted the Christians), but the fact that he stood in defense of a civilization that had declared him a slave at birth, attests to how amazing and important Roman Civilization truly was and to how it inspired patriotism of the highest virtue.

戴克里先,一个居住地经常遭受罗马人入侵的人,一个要么出生在奴隶身份下,要么是出生在被罗马人奴役的父母之下,他最终成为皇帝并热爱罗马文化和传统。戴克里先因其在迫害基督徒方面的作用而被人们记住(我对他是否真的下令迫害基督徒持怀疑态度,我认为盖乌斯·伽列里乌斯实际上才是真正迫害基督徒的人),但他为捍卫一个曾经将他视为出生即为奴隶的文明而站出来的事实,证明了罗马文明有多么令人惊奇和重要,以及它是如何激发最高尚的爱国主义精神。
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The Christian religion, flourishing and dominating after Constantine, in many ways encouraged such patriotism and civic virtue. Although the Christian Eastern Roman Empire(Byzantine) lacked the intellectual and philosophical innovations that had flourished under the old Roman Empire, it encouraged tons of other kinds of innovations and patriotism as well. For instance, the Byzantines made tons of engineering innovations for their country.

基督教教派,在君士坦丁之后兴盛并占主导地位,从许多方面鼓励了这种爱国主义和公民美德。尽管基督教东罗马帝国(拜占庭)缺乏旧罗马帝国时期蓬勃发展的知识和哲学创新,但它也鼓励了大量其他类型的创新和爱国主义。例如,拜占庭人为他们的国家进行了大量的工程创新。

Gaius Stern
Polybius says it was the mixed constitution that made the Roman Empire (already100+ years old in his time [ca. 140 BC]) last so long. Read all of his Book 6. Machiavelli addresses the same question briefly and has the same conclusion in Discourses, plus what I say below, but I forget the citation.

波利比约斯说,正是混合宪法使得罗马帝国(在他那个时代已经有100多年历史了【约公元前140年】)得以延续那么长时间。请阅读他的第六卷全部内容。马基雅维里也简要讨论了同样的问题,并在《论语》中得出了相同的结论,加上我下面所说的,但我忘记了引用。

In fact a feature Livy does not talk long about the decision to incorporate some conquered people as citizens and give them a stake in the success of Rome. Thus Rome and the Romans grew as their territory grew and they gave the recent enemy a full forgiveness and a reason to fight for Roman success.

实际上,利维并没有就将一些被征服的民族纳为公民,并让他们对罗马的成功有所贡献这一决定进行长时间的讨论。因此,随着罗马和罗马人民领土的扩张,他们给予最近的敌人全面的宽恕,并给予他们为罗马的成功而战的理由。
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Other nations rarely did/do this. But see the Marshall Plan after WW II, when George Marshall and President Truman decided to rebuild Europe and make them our fuller trade partners to prevent the Soviets from doing the same. That was Roman style thinking.

其他国家很少这样做。但可以看到二战后的马歇尔计划,当乔治·马歇尔和杜鲁门总统决定重建欧洲,使他们成为我们更全面的贸易伙伴,以防止苏联采取相同行动。那是罗马式的思维方式。

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