网友热议:为什么拥有石油的伊朗变成了一个贫穷的国家?
2024-04-16 Phelps 4953
正文翻译
原因主要有两个:油价暴跌和对伊朗的制裁。


评论翻译
Ali Barghani
Iran was a well-off country during much of the 2000s. Back then, Iranian citizens lived very comfortably, had lots of subsidies in housing, fuel, food, and enjoyed luxury goods, electronics, travelling, etc.

在 2000 年代的大部分时间里,伊朗都是一个富裕的国家。当时,伊朗公民生活非常舒适,享受着住房、燃料、食物等方面的巨额补贴,还可以享受奢侈品、电子产品、旅行等等。

There are three things, however, that caused the economy to deteriorate since around 2012, unemployment to rise and inflation to go up:

然而,从2012年左右开始,由于以下三个原因,伊朗经济恶化,失业率上升,通货膨胀加剧:

Crash of global oil prices in 2014. The Iranian economy was still considerably dependent on oil at the time (though no where near as much as its neighbours), so many jobs were lost in the petroleum industry. Furthermore, reduced oil income meant the government could not allocate as much money for welfare and subsidies, which was confounded by,
Economic sanctions. Since 2012, Iran has been the most sanctioned country on the planet, having even more sanctions than North Korea, Cuba and Venezuela combined. Almost every industry you can think of is embargoed, from oil and gas (which made the above event even more dramatic), banking, insurance, metals, shipping, software, hardware and pretty much any other industry.

2014 年全球石油价格暴跌。当时伊朗经济仍然严重依赖石油(尽管不像邻国那样依赖),石油行业因此失去了许多工作岗位。此外,石油收入减少意味着政府无法为福利和补贴分配那么多资金,而这又因为以下原因而变得更加复杂:
经济制裁。自 2012年以来,伊朗一直是世界上遭受制裁最多的国家,甚至比朝鲜、古巴和委内瑞拉加起来遭受的制裁还要多。你能想到的几乎所有行业都受到禁运,从石油和天然气(这使得上述事件更加戏剧性)、银行、保险、金属、航运、软件、硬件到几乎任何其他行业。

Poor economic mismanagement. The government of President Rouhani since 2013 has been extremely neo-liberal oriented, and has largely seen the lifting of sanctions and economic liberalization has Iran’s key to economic success. Rouhani has gotten rid of many subsidies that helped the lower-income strata, and has largely implemented privatization policies that benefited the top ten percent of the country.

经济管理不善。自2013年以来,鲁哈尼总统的政府一直奉行极端的新自由主义政策,并认为解除制裁和经济自由化是伊朗经济成功的关键。鲁哈尼取消了许多帮助低收入阶层的补贴,并大力实施了使该国10%的顶层受益的私有化政策。

Iran has a lot of poor people, but there are also many Iranians out there living their best lives. Despite sanctions and COVID, Iran has seen a huge increase in the number of millionaires this past few years, mostly due to a booming stock market. Today, most Iranians cannot afford an iPhone with their monthly income, yet Tehran has some of the highest rate of luxury cars in the world. Thus, there is a lot of wealth in Iran, but it is divided extremely unequally.

伊朗有很多穷人,但也有一些伊朗人过着非常富裕的生活。尽管受到制裁和新冠疫情的影响,伊朗过去几年百万富翁的数量激增,这主要得益于蓬勃发展的股市。如今,大多数伊朗人用一个月的收入买不起苹果手机,但德黑兰却是世界上拥有豪华汽车比例最高的一些城市之一。因此,伊朗拥有大量财富,但财富分配却极度不平等。
原创翻译:龙腾网 https://www.ltaaa.cn 转载请注明出处


Such scenes are not uncommon in Tehran:

在德黑兰,以下场景并不少见:


Having said that, it should be noted that these type of scenes can be viewed in every country. There are worst images like this in New York, Riyadh, Los Angeles and London.

不过,需要指出的是,这类场景在任何国家都可能看到。纽约、利雅得、洛杉矶和伦敦都有更糟糕的景象。

Iran also looks very much like this:

伊朗也有很多这样的地方:









Start Sameer
About 10-15 years ago, Iran was doing well. People were hopeful and optimistic.
I remember my dad, who was still working then, got a big raise. We were able to buy a bigger apartment for our family of six. A couple of years later, he even bought a new car, which was a big improvement from our old one.

大约10-15年前,伊朗的情况还是不错的。人们心中也曾充满希望和乐观。
我记得当时我爸爸还在工作,工资涨了不少。我们有能力为家里的六口人购买一套更大的公寓。几年后,爸爸还购置了一辆新车,比旧车高级多了。

But then things started getting worse. Two main reasons were the crash in oil prices and the sanctions against Iran.
Wages went down, pensions got cut, and prices went up a lot. The money we had saved was worth less because the currency lost value. Thankfully, my dad retired before his industry faced cuts, and he had saved some money.

但后来事态开始恶化了。原因主要有两个:油价暴跌和对伊朗的制裁。
爸爸的工资降了,养老金被削减,物价大幅上涨。因为货币贬值,我们的存款也就不值钱了。幸运的是,我父亲在他的行业面临裁员之前退休了,手里存下了一笔钱。

To put it simply, Iran went through a rough patch in recent years. Things weren't perfect before, but they were better than they are now. This shows that sanctions don't just hurt politicians; they hurt regular people trying to get by in a world where the rich have more power.

简单地说,伊朗近年来经历了一段艰难的时期。虽然以前也不算完美,但总归比现在要好。这表明,制裁不仅伤害了政客,也伤害了普通人,他们在富人拥有更多权力的世界里举步维艰。

Cyrus Razavi
Iran's transformation into a poor country despite its vast oil reserves and many other resources is a complex issue rooted in a combination of factors, including:

尽管伊朗拥有巨大的石油储量和许多其他资源,但现在却变成一个贫穷的国家,这是一个复杂的问题,根源于多种因素,比如:

Economic Mismanagement: The Iranian government's economic policies often prioritize ideological motives over sound economic principles. Centralized planning, inefficient state-owned enterprises, and a hostile environment for foreign investment have stifled economic development and productivity. This, coupled with heavy subsidies, further drains the economy.

经济管理不当:伊朗政府的经济政策总是将意识形态动机置于合理的经济原则之上。中央的计划经济、低效的国有企业以及对外国投资的不利环境扼杀了国家的经济发展和生产力。再加上巨额补贴,进一步耗尽了经济潜能。
原创翻译:龙腾网 https://www.ltaaa.cn 转载请注明出处


Rampant Corruption: Iran suffers from systemic corruption at all levels of government and business. This corruption bleeds the country's resources, distorts the market, and discourages legitimate investment. Those with close ties to the regime often benefit disproportionately, enriching themselves while the wider population faces hardship.

猖獗的腐败:伊朗各级政府和企业存在系统性的腐败问题。腐败消耗了国家的资源,扭曲了市场,阻碍了合法投资。那些与政府关系密切的人从中获得了惊人的好处,在广大民众面临生活困难的同时,他们却赚得盆满钵满。

Support for Proxy Groups: The Iranian regime allocates significant funds to support proxy groups and militias throughout the Middle East. This expensive foreign policy drains valuable resources that could be used for domestic development, social programs, or economic investment.

支持代理组织:伊朗政权拨出大量资金支持整个中东地区的代理组织和民兵。这种昂贵的外交政策耗尽了本可用于国内发展、社会项目或经济投资的宝贵资源。

International Sanctions: Decades of sanctions targeting Iran's energy sector and banking system have severely hampered its ability to trade and attract investment. While sanctions are a major factor, they have also exacerbated the problems of mismanagement and corruption, providing a convenient excuse for the regime's own failures.

国际制裁:数十年来针对伊朗能源部门和银行系统的制裁严重阻碍了伊朗的贸易和吸引投资的能力。虽然制裁是一个主要因素,但它们也加剧了管理不善和腐败的问题,为政权自身的失败提供了方便的借口。

Luxurious Lifestyles of the Elite: While the average Iranian struggles with poverty and economic hardship, the ruling elite, including the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), their families, and close associates, often live extravagant and luxurious lives in the West. This stark inequality creates resentment and further discredits the regime's management of the economy.

精英阶层的奢靡生活:当普通伊朗人在贫困和经济困难中苦苦挣扎时,统治精英包括YSL革命卫队、他们的家人和亲密伙伴,却在西方经常过着奢靡的生活。这种明显的不平等导致了民声载道,进一步影响了政权对经济的管理信用。

Consequences for the Iranian People:
These factors have created a situation where Iran's oil wealth fails to translate into prosperity and a better standard of living for its citizens. Iran faces:

对伊朗人民的影响:
这些因素造成了这样一种局面:伊朗的石油财富未能转化为国家的繁荣发展和国民更高的生活水平。伊朗面临着:

High Inflation: Spiraling inflation drastically erodes the purchasing power of Iranians
Widespread Poverty: A large percentage of the population lives below the poverty line, struggling to afford basic necessities.
Unemployment: The economy fails to create enough jobs, especially for young, educated Iranians, leading to frustration and brain drain.
Decaying Infrastructure: Insufficient investment in infrastructure means crumbling roads, unreliable power grids, and outdated public services.

高通货膨胀:不断加剧的通货膨胀大大削弱了伊朗人的购买力。
普遍贫困:多数民众生活在贫困线以下,连基本的生活必需品都负担不起。
失业:伊朗的经济无法创造足够的就业机会,尤其是受过教育的年轻伊朗人找不到工作,导致挫折感和人才外流。
基础设施老化:国家对基础设施的投资不足意味着道路破旧、电网脆弱和公共服务陈旧。

原创翻译:龙腾网 https://www.ltaaa.cn 转载请注明出处


In conclusion, Iran's decline into a poor country despite its oil wealth is not merely a result of bad luck or outside forces. Internal mismanagement, corruption, costly regional ambitions, and the self-enrichment of the ruling class have significantly contributed to this situation. The Iranian people bear the brunt of these decisions, suffering economic hardship while their country's potential is squandered.

总之,尽管伊朗拥有丰富的石油资源,但却沦落为一个贫穷的国家,这不仅仅是运气不佳或外因导致的结果。伊朗国内管理不善、腐败丛生、代价高昂的地区野心以及统治阶级的中饱私囊等,都在很大程度上导致了如今的局面。伊朗人民首当其冲地受到这些决策的影响,在百姓遭受经济困境的同时,国家的发展潜力也被浪费了。

Nathanial Rowe
Economic Mismanagement: Iran has faced challenges in effectively managing its economy and implementing sound economic policies. Factors such as corruption, misallocation of resources, and inefficient governance have hindered economic growth and development.

经济管理不善:伊朗没能有效管理经济、实施健全的经济政策。贪污腐败、资源配置不当和治理效率低下等因素阻碍了经济的增长和发展。

International Sanctions: Iran has been subject to various international sanctions imposed by the United States and other countries. These sanctions have limited Iran's ability to engage in international trade, access global financial systems, and attract foreign investments. The impact of sanctions on Iran's economy has been significant, including restrictions on oil exports and financial transactions.

国际制裁:伊朗一直受到美国等国的国际制裁。这些制裁限制了伊朗参与国际贸易、进入全球金融体系和吸引外国投资的能力。制裁对伊朗经济的影响是巨大的,对石油出口和金融交易都进行了限制。

Iran's economic situation and the challenges it faces cannot be attributed to a single factor. However, there are several reasons why a country with significant oil reserves like Iran may face economic difficulties:

伊朗的经济形势及面临的困境无法归结于单一因素。但像伊朗这样拥有大量石油储备的国家可能面临经济困难的原因有几个:

Economic Mismanagement: Iran has experienced periods of economic mismanagement, including inefficient resource allocation, corruption, and a lack of diversification in the economy. These factors can hinder economic growth and development, regardless of the presence of natural resources.

经济管理不善:伊朗经历了经济管理不善的时期,包括资源配置效率低下、腐败滋生和经济单一。无论有没有自然资源,这些因素都会阻碍经济的增长和发展。

International Sanctions: Iran has been subject to international sanctions due to concerns over its nuclear program and human ri hts issues. These sanctions have restricted Iran's access to global markets, limited foreign investment, and hindered the development of its oil industry. Such limitations can have a significant impact on a country's economy, despite its oil reserves.

国际制裁:由于对核项目和人*问题的担忧,伊朗一直受到国际制裁。这些制裁限制了伊朗参与全球贸易,限制了外国投资,阻碍了伊朗石油工业的发展。这种限制可能会对一个国家的经济产生重大影响,就算该国拥有石油储备也不例外。

Dependence on Oil: While oil can be a valuable resource, relying heavily on a single commodity for revenue can make an economy vulnerable to fluctuations in global oil prices. Iran's economy has been heavily dependent on oil exports, which exposes it to the volatility of the global oil market.

对石油的依赖:虽然石油也许是一种宝贵的资源,但严重依赖单一商品的收入会使国家经济体极易受到全球石油价格波动的影响。伊朗经济一直严重依赖石油出口,直接暴露在全球石油市场波动的风险中。

Political Factors: Political instability and geopolitical tensions can negatively affect a country's economy. Iran has faced political challenges, both domestically and internationally, which have created uncertainties and hindered economic growth.

政治因素:政治动荡和地缘政治紧张局势会对一个国家的经济产生负面影响。伊朗在国内和国际上都面临政治挑战,这造成了局势的不确定性,阻碍了经济增长。

Demographic Challenges: Iran has a large and growing population, which puts pressure on the job market, social services, and infrastructure. Meeting the needs of a rapidly growing population can be a significant economic challenge.

人口挑战:伊朗人口庞大且不断增长,给就业市场、社会服务和基础设施都带来了压力。满足快速增长的人口的基本需求可能是一个重大的经济挑战。

Economic Sanctions and COVID-19: In recent years, Iran has faced additional economic difficulties due to the reimposition of sanctions by the United States, which has further limited its access to international markets. Moreover, the global COVID-19 pandemic has impacted Iran's economy, causing disruptions in trade, tourism, and various sectors.

经济制裁和新冠疫情:近年来,由于美国重新实施制裁,伊朗的经济困难越来越大,制裁进一步限制了伊朗参与国际贸易的机会。此外,新冠疫情也影响了伊朗经济,造成了贸易、旅游和各个部门的收入大幅下降。

Jignesh Parekh
Only Russia and China purchase oil from Iran america had pressurized prime minister Narendra Modi not to purchase oil from Iran at cheap price india had withdraw from chabahar project of Iran so Iran started having friendship with china

只有俄罗斯和中国从伊朗购买石油,美国向莫迪总理施压,要求莫迪不能用低廉的价格从伊朗购买石油,所以印度退出了伊朗的恰巴哈尔项目,而伊朗则开始与中国建立友谊。

Ali Ağan
There are several reasons why Iran, despite having significant oil reserves, has struggled with poverty and economic challenges.

尽管伊朗拥有大量石油储备,但却一直在贫困和经济挑战中挣扎,原因有如下几个。

Firstly, Iran has faced economic sanctions from the international community, which have limited its ability to sell oil and access global markets. These sanctions have had a significant impact on Iran's economy, contributing to high inflation, a weakened currency, and a struggling private sector.

首先,伊朗面临着国际社会的经济制裁,限制了伊朗销售石油和参与全球贸易的能力。这些制裁对伊朗经济产生了重大影响,导致了严重的通货膨胀、货币贬值和民营经济陷入困境。

Secondly, Iran's economy has long been heavily reliant on oil exports, which can lead to volatility and economic instability. When oil prices drop, as they have done in recent years, it can have a significant impact on the country's economy and government revenues.

其次,伊朗经济长期以来严重依赖石油出口,这可能会导致巨大波动和经济动荡。当油价像近年来这样大幅下跌时,伊朗的经济和政府收入就受到了重大影响。
原创翻译:龙腾网 https://www.ltaaa.cn 转载请注明出处


Thirdly, corruption and mismanagement have also contributed to Iran's economic challenges. The country's economy is largely controlled by the government, which has been accused of nepotism and corruption, and there have been reports of large-scale embezzlement and financial fraud.

第三,腐败和管理不善也加剧了伊朗的经济困局。伊朗经济在很大程度上由政府控制,而伊朗政府一直被诟病任人唯亲、腐败滋生,经常爆出大规模贪污和金融欺诈的新闻。

Finally, political instability and tensions with other countries have also contributed to Iran's economic challenges. The country has faced significant geopolitical challenges in recent years, including ongoing tensions with the United States, which have contributed to uncertainty and instability in the country.

最后,政治动荡以及伊朗与其他国家的紧张关系也加剧了伊朗的经济困局。伊朗近年来面临着重大的地缘政治挑战,比如和美国的关系持续紧张,导致了伊朗的紧张和不稳定的局面。
原创翻译:龙腾网 https://www.ltaaa.cn 转载请注明出处


In summary, a combination of factors, including economic sanctions, overreliance on oil exports, corruption and mismanagement, and political instability, have all contributed to Iran's economic challenges and struggles with poverty.

总之,包括经济制裁、过度依赖石油出口、腐败和管理不善以及政治不稳定在内的一系列因素都导致了伊朗面临的经济困局和贫困问题。
原创翻译:龙腾网 https://www.ltaaa.cn 转载请注明出处


Amirreza Taheri
Well it depends on you how you mean the world “poor” or “poverty.
at all Iran has many rich people mostly in Tehran (capital). Isfahan, Shiraz and etc.
but at other hand Iran, has a big social gap, that I think you meant this. That’s because Iran Experienced Alot Sanctions followed by economical depression made cost of living so high, that the middle or lower part of society got so poor.

这取决于你如何定义“贫困”了。
总的来说,伊朗有很多富人,大部分生活在德黑兰(首都)、伊斯法罕、设拉子等。
但另一方面,伊朗存在显著的社会差距,我猜你可能是想说这个吧。这是因为伊朗经历了很多制裁,出现了经济萧条,生活成本太高,社会中下层民众的生活陷入贫困。

Luka Dragovic
Because they were unrightfully invaded by US, their regime was toppled, they were destabilized, they were robbed of many natural resources all by the pretext of the US, claiming they have weapons of mass destruction. It's one of the US standard stories for invading other countries, robbing them clean and at the same time justify their absurd military spending.

因为他们被美国非法入侵,政权被推番,遭受了破坏,许多自然资源都被剥夺了,这些全都是因为美国的借口,美国宣称伊朗拥有大规模杀伤性武器。这正是美国入侵其他国家,洗劫别国资源,同时为自己荒谬的军事开支做出辩解的“成功案例”之一。

Ethan
Iran has a radical Islamic government. This government wants to promote the Shia belief all over the Middle East. They are supporting the Hezbollah militants in Lebanon, the Hamas and Islamic Jihad militants in the Gaza stripes, the Houthi rebels in Yemen, they are involved in the war in Iraq and the Iranian army is participating in the Syrian civil war.
Wars are very expensive, there are no free lunches. The consequences of diverting resources from education, research and infrastructure into wars will be felt for generations

伊朗有一个激进的YLS政府。伊朗政府希望将什叶派教义普及到整个中东地区。他们支持黎巴嫩的真主党、加沙地带的哈马斯和YSL圣战组织、也门的胡塞叛军,他们参与了伊拉克战争,也参与了叙利亚内战。
战争是非常昂贵的,没有免费的午餐。将国家资源从教育、研究和基础设施转移到战争的后果将影响好几代人。

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