古罗马人是如何在河流中修建桥梁而不使用潜水设备的?
2024-05-31 大号儿童 4610
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Patrick S
The Ancient Romans were known for their engineering prowess, and their ability to build bridges without modern equipment is truly impressive. One of the key techniques they used to construct bridges over rivers was the cofferdam method.

古罗马人以其高超的工程技术而闻名,他们在没有现代设备的情况下建造桥梁的能力确实令人印象深刻。他们用来在河流上建造桥梁的关键技术之一是围堰法。

Cofferdams were temporary enclosures built in water to create a dry work environment for construction. The Romans would first drive wooden or metal piles into the riverbed to form a perimeter, then fill the area within the enclosure with soil, rocks, or other materials to displace the water. Once the water was pumped out or diverted, workers could build the bridge’s foundation and supports on dry land.

临时围堰是在水中建造的临时封闭结构,用于为施工创造干燥的工作环境。古罗马人首先会将木材或金属桩驱入河床,形成一个围栏,然后将围栏内的区域填满土壤、岩石或其他材料,以驱赶水流。一旦将水抽干或转移,工人就可以在干燥的地面上建造桥的基础和支撑结构。

To ensure the cofferdam was watertight, the Romans used a combination of clay, sand, and other natural materials to seal any gaps or leaks. They also employed skilled laborers who were experienced in working underwater to inspect and repair the structure as needed.

为了确保临时围堰密封性良好,罗马人采用了黏土、沙子和其他天然材料的组合来填补任何缝隙或漏洞。他们还雇用了经验丰富的水下工人,负责检查和修复结构的需要。

In addition to cofferdams, the Romans utilized innovative tools and techniques to aid in bridge construction. They developed complex systems of pulleys, cranes, and scaffolding to transport materials and workers across the river. Stone-cutting tools allowed them to shape and fit stones with precision, creating strong and durable bridge foundations.

除了临时围堰外,罗马人还利用创新的工具和技术来辅助桥梁建设。他们开发了复杂的滑轮、起重机和脚手架系统,以便运送材料和工人横越河流。石材切割工具使他们能够精确地加工和安装石块,从而创建出坚固耐用的桥梁基础。

Furthermore, the Romans were masters of arch construction, a design element that became synonymous with Roman architecture. By using a series of stone blocks or bricks arranged in a curved formation, they could distribute the weight of the bridge evenly and support heavy loads. This architectural innovation made Roman bridges not only functional but also aesthetically pleasing.

此外,古罗马人是拱桥建造的大师,这一设计元素已经成为古罗马建筑的代名词。通过使用一系列石块或砖块排列成弧形,他们可以均匀分布桥梁的重量并支撑重物。这种建筑创新使古罗马桥梁不仅功能性强,而且美观动人。

It is important to note that while the Romans did not have modern diving equipment, they did have skilled divers who played a crucial role in bridge construction. These divers would descend into the river to inspect the foundation, remove debris, and assist in the placement of underwater structures. Their expertise was essential in ensuring the stability and longevity of the bridges.

需要注意的是,虽然古罗马人没有现代潜水装备,但他们拥有技艺娴熟的潜水员,在桥梁建造中发挥了至关重要的作用。这些潜水员会下潜到河底检查基础,清除杂物,并协助安置水下结构。他们的专业知识对确保桥梁的稳定性和持久性至关重要。

Terry Singleton
Don't think diving equipment is needed but driving equipment as in pile driving to install the bridge base support certainly is. I don't know the answer but perhaps Vitruvius may mention it in his work of architecture or possibly Julius Frontinus may have something to say.

我认为不需要潜水装备,但确实需要驱动设备,比如打桩机来安装桥梁的基础支撑。我不知道答案,也许维特鲁威在他的建筑作品中提到过,或者尤利乌斯·弗龙蒂努斯可能会有所提及。

Midrac / Danny M.
I like the text, but, I’m astonished that in the whole text you not once mention the real secret/ingredient which assured that a lot of Roman buildings, bridges and other constructions are still standing today: opus caementicium or in plain E’glish: Roman concrete.

我喜欢这段文字,但我很惊讶的是你在整个文章中竟然一次都没有提到确保许多古罗马建筑、桥梁和其他结构至今仍屹立不倒的真正秘密/要素:opus caementicium,或者用简单的英语说就是古罗马混凝土。

Paul Mentzer
In the same ways we do today, without diving equipment. You do NOT need Diving Equipment to build a bridge and except for inspections rarely used even today,

与今天一样,没有潜水装备。建造桥梁不需要潜水装备,甚至到现在也很少使用,只有在进行检查时才会用到。

First way was to determine where the pier was going to be, then build up mud and stone wall around that area by dumping stones and mud where you want that barrier to be (You can expedite this system by using boats full of mud and sink them where you want the wall, a another method is to use two sets of logs to contain the mud, the logs hammered directly into the river bed). Once the pier site is surrounded by a wall, you use pumps (Romans would use Archimedes Screws) to remove the mud and any mud at the bottom on the river to get to the bedrock, then built like you were on dry land, for you will be. Once that pier is finished, you move the mud and stone wall around the area of the next pier. Slow work but effective.

第一种方法是确定支柱的位置,然后在该区域周围筑起泥土和石墙,通过倾倒石块和泥土的方式来构筑所需的屏障(你可以利用装满泥浆的船只并将它们沉入所需建墙的位置来加快这一过程,另一种方法是使用两组原木来围住泥土,将原木直接敲入河床)。一旦支柱位置被墙围住,你就可以使用泵(古罗马人会使用阿基米德螺旋)来清除泥浆和河床上的泥土,直到达到基岩,然后就可以像在干地上一样进行建造。一旦支柱建造完成,你就可以移动周围的泥土和石墙到下一个支柱的区域。虽然工作缓慢,但非常有效。

A sawwecond method was just drop the stone for the pier onto the river bottom using lumber to guide the stone so they fit on top of another. Enough Weight to push down the mud and build up from that point.

第二种方法是直接将桥墩的石块放在河底,利用木材引导石块以使它们可以堆叠在一起。足够的重量可以将泥土压下去,并从那一点开始建造。

A third method was to divert the river, so the river bed is dry, build the bridge over the dry riverbed. then divert the river back to the original river bed, i.e. under the new bridge. A variation of this is to build the bridge over half of the river, the half that is dry, then the other half when you divert the river to the finished half. This is mostly done with rivers whose flows vary widely, during the dry season some river’s flow are less then a quarter of what it is during the wet season.

第三种方法是改道河流,使河床变干,然后在干燥的河床上建造桥梁。然后将河流重新改道回原来的河床,也就是新桥的下方。这种方法的变体是先在河流的一半上建造桥梁,即干燥的一半,然后在将河流改道到完成的一半后,在另一半上建造。这主要是针对那些流量在不同季节变化很大的河流而言,在干季,某些河流的流量不到雨季的四分之一。

As I said, most of these techniques are done today for they are effective. We use steel instead of wood to hold up the temporary coffer dams around the piers but that is about all when it comes to the actual techniques used to be able to build a bridge pier.

正如我所说的,这些技术大多数今天仍在使用,因为它们非常有效。我们现在使用钢材代替木材来支撑桥墩周围的临时围堰,但在实际的建桥技术上几乎没有变化。

Basil Edward
I believe the Armies of today us a similar method as the Romans
These were called pontoon bridges. depending on the size and speed of the stream they would put small bots side by side and planks over top. depending how serious the were they could use it and move it or use it to build a stronger permanent bridge.

我相信今天的军队使用了与罗马人类似的方法。这被称为浮桥。根据河流的大小和速度,他们会把小船并排放置,然后在顶部铺上木板。根据情况的严重程度,他们可以使用它并移动它,或者用它来建造更坚固的永久性桥梁。

ODen
Errr… who needs diving equipement to build a roman bridge?
Remember that the Romans did not build the Golden Gate, they built river bridges in favorable spots and this usually in summer where the water was shallow and the current not too strong

谁需要潜水设备来建造一座罗马桥?
记住,罗马人没有建造金门,他们在有利的地点建造河桥,通常是在夏天,那里的水很浅,水流不是很强

Assis
The Ancient Romans were known for their engineering prowess, and their construction of bridges was no exception. When building bridges in rivers without the aid of diving equipment, the Romans used a variety of techniques to support the construction process and ensure the bridge's stability. Here are some common methods they employed:

古罗马人以其工程技术而闻名,他们修建桥梁的能力也不例外。在没有潜水装备的情况下修建河流桥梁时,古罗马人使用了各种技术来支撑建设过程并确保桥梁的稳固性。以下是他们常用的一些方法:

Cofferdams: Romans often used cofferdams, which are temporary enclosures built in water to create a dry work environment. By pumping out the water from within the cofferdam, workers could excavate the riverbed, lay foundations, and construct bridge supports without being submerged.

围堰:古罗马人经常使用围堰,这是一种在水中建造的临时围栏,用于创造干燥的工作环境。通过将围堰内的水抽出,工人们可以在没有被淹没的情况下开挖河床、铺设基础和建造桥墩。

Pile Driving: Romans used pile driving to create foundations for their bridges. Wooden piles were driven into the riverbed using large hammers or trip hammers powered by animals or humans. This method allowed them to create a stable foundation for the bridge without needing to dive underwater.

打桩:古罗马人使用打桩来为他们的桥梁打下基础。木桩通过大锤或由动物或人力驱动的悬杆锤被驱入河床。这种方法使他们能够在不需要潜水的情况下为桥梁打下稳固的基础。

Pontoon Bridges: In some cases, the Romans would build pontoon bridges as temporary structures to facilitate the construction of permanent bridges. Pontoon bridges are essentially floating bridges made of anchored boats or floating platforms. These could be used as a temporary crossing for construction materials and workers until the permanent bridge was completed.

浮桥:在某些情况下,古罗马人会建造浮桥作为临时结构,以促进永久性桥梁的建设。浮桥本质上是由锚定船只或浮动平台构成的浮动桥梁。这些可以作为临时通道,用于运输建筑材料和工人,直到永久性桥梁建成。

Caissons: Romans also used caissons, which are watertight structures used in bridge construction to create a dry working environment underwater. By sinking a caisson to the riverbed and pumping out the water, workers could excavate the riverbed and build the bridge supports without diving.

沉井:古罗马人还使用沉井,这是一种在桥梁建设中使用的密封结构,用于在水下创造干燥的工作环境。通过将沉井沉入河床并抽出水,工人们可以在不潜水的情况下开挖河床并建造桥墩。

Divers: While the Romans did not have sophisticated diving equipment like we do today, they did employ divers for certain tasks. These divers would often be equipped with basic tools like weighted baskets to collect debris from the riverbed or inspect the construction progress underwater.

潜水员:虽然古罗马人没有像我们今天这样的复杂潜水装备,但他们确实雇用了潜水员执行某些任务。这些潜水员通常配备有基本工具,如带有重物篮的潜水员,用于收集河床上的碎片或检查水下的建筑进度。

Overall, the Romans were able to build bridges in rivers without diving equipment by utilizing a combination of innovative engineering techniques, temporary structures, and skilled labor to create stable foundations and support structures for their bridges.

总的来说,古罗马人通过利用创新的工程技术、临时结构和熟练的劳动力来建立稳固的基础和支撑结构,从而在河流中修建桥梁而不需要潜水装备。

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