QA讨论:中国历史上有哪些事件没有记载在中国官方史籍中,但在其他国家的史籍中却有记载?
2024-06-07 吕洞宾! 16045
正文翻译


奥斯曼帝国与帖木儿帝国

评论翻译
Chen Zhigong (陳治功)

原创翻译:龙腾网 https://www.ltaaa.cn 转载请注明出处


Thx for A2A.
What are some events in Chinese history that were not recorded in Chinese official historical records, but were uncovered in historical records of other countries?
Well I know one.
Let’s begin the story with something else.
Everyone knows this empire right? This is the Turkish Ottomans Empire which was a nightmare of the European people by the end of Middle Ages.
During the 14th century the Ottomans annexed Serbia and surrounded Byzantine’s capital Constantinople. They fought in several wars against the Christian European countries and they won most of the wars.
In 1396, a famous war broke out, that was the Battle of Nicopolis (aka The Ottomans-Hungary War), in this war the Ottomans Empire defeated the crusade formed by dozens of Christian Europeans countries with great casualties

谢谢邀请。
中国历史上有哪些事件没有被中国官方历史记录所记录,但在其他国家的历史记录中却被发现?
我知道一个。
让我们从别的事情开始讲故事。
大家都知道这个帝国吧?这就是奥斯曼土耳其帝国,它是中世纪末期欧洲人的噩梦。
14 世纪,奥斯曼人吞并了塞尔维亚并包围了拜占庭首都君士坦丁堡。他们与基督教欧洲国家进行了几次战争,并赢得了大多数战争。
1396 年,一场著名的战争爆发了,那就是尼科波利斯战役(又名奥斯曼-匈牙利战争),在这场战争中,奥斯曼帝国以巨大的伤亡击败了由数十个基督教欧洲国家组成的十字军。

List of belligerents of the war, Ottomans Empire defeated the alliance of European countries and got a decisive victory.
As a result, Ottomans Empire kept expanding their territory in East Europe and West Asia. No one could stop them. The European Christians were deeply scared and everyone was worried about the future. The Byzantine Emperor even tried to give up and flee Constantinople.
But just 6 years after the Battle of Nicopolis, something unexpected happened.
Another empire which was even stronger than the Ottomans Empire rose in the east of the Ottomans. That was the Timurid Empire.
In July, 1402, Timur, the founder and the Great Khan of the Timurid Dynasty, ordered an army with 150 thousand soldiers to invade Ottomans Empire, in the Battle of Ankara they defeated the Ottomans Empire’s army led by Sultan Bayezid I and even captured him. The Sultan died one year after being captured.

战争交战国名单,奥斯曼帝国击败了欧洲国家的联盟,取得了决定性的胜利。
因此,奥斯曼帝国不断在东欧和西亚扩张领土,无人能阻挡。欧洲基督徒深感恐惧,人人都对未来感到担忧。拜占庭皇帝甚至试图放弃并逃离君士坦丁堡。
然而,就在尼科波利斯战役结束6年后,意想不到的事情发生了。
另一个比奥斯曼帝国更强大的帝国在奥斯曼帝国的东部崛起,那就是帖木儿帝国。
1402年7月,帖木儿王朝的创始人和大汗帖木儿下令一支由15万士兵组成的军队入侵奥斯曼帝国,在安卡拉战役中击败了奥斯曼帝国苏丹巴耶塞特一世率领的军队,甚至俘虏了他。苏丹被俘一年后去世。

This was something unexpected. The Europeans especially the Byzantine Empire were indirectly saved by Timur. Historians thought that Timur’s invasions and victory against Ottomans Empire have delayed the demise of Byzantine Empire for half a century.
Ok, above is the background story. Now the main story begins.
After knowing the existence of The Timurid Dynasty, its power and its victory against the Ottomans Empire, the Europeans thought that The Timurid Dynasty maybe is a good target to be allied with to fight against the Ottomans Empire together.
So then many European countries started to send diplomats to the Timurid Empire to improve their relationship with it. One of the most famous diplomats among them was a diplomat sent by The Kingdom of Castile (today’s Spain) whose name is Ruy González de Clavijo[8].
Clavijo arrived in Tīmurid Empire in September, 1404 and left in March, 1406[9]. He didn’t stay there for a long time, but he recorded his experience there in his book Embajada a Tamorlán[10] (English translation: Embassy to Tamerlane[11]) which is now a very important source of the studies of Timurid history.

这是意料之外的事情,帖木儿间接拯救了欧洲人,尤其是拜占庭帝国。历史学家认为帖木儿的入侵和对奥斯曼帝国的胜利,使拜占庭帝国的灭亡推迟了半个世纪。
好了,以上是背景故事,现在开始正文。
在知道了帖木儿王朝的存在、它的实力以及它对奥斯曼帝国的胜利之后,欧洲人认为帖木儿王朝或许是一个可以结盟共同对抗奥斯曼帝国的好对象。
于是欧洲各国开始派遣外交官前往帖木儿帝国,改善与帖木儿帝国的关系。其中最著名的一位外交官是卡斯蒂利亚王国(今西班牙)派来的外交官,名叫鲁伊·冈萨雷斯·德·克拉维约。
克拉维约于1404年9月抵达帖木儿帝国,1406年3月离开。他并没有在那里待很长时间,但他在《Embajada a Tamorlán》(英文译本:克拉维约东使记)一书中记录了自己的经历,这本书现在已成为研究帖木儿历史的重要资料来源。

Embajada A Tamorlán
In this book, he recorded his experience of encountering with a group of diplomats sent by an Empire very powerful but almost unknown in the West then—The Chinese Empire (Ming Dynasty).
Back then Clavijo was staying in a famous city called Samarqand[12]. He and his team were well treated there by Timur the Khan.
One day in 1404, a group of diplomats came from the East. from an “unknown” place. They had different lookings and different clothes.
They came to Timur’s palace, asking why he didn’t pay tribute to their Empire for 7 years, telling him to pay the Empire all the tributes he delayed as soon as possible. They had a very tough tone.
Who are they? Where are they from? Who sent them? Why did they come here? Clavijo then found something appalling.
That The Timurid Dynasty was a tributary of the Chinese Ming Dynasty in 1380s and 1390s. In 1396 when Timur decided to start his 2nd conquest towards the West direction, he kidnapped all the foreign diplomats and cut off the diplomatic relation with the Chinese Empire,[13] that’s why the Chinese Emperor[14] was angry and sent the diplomats here to ask him pay all the tributes he delayed since 7 years ago ASAP.

在《克拉维约东使记》这本书中,他记录了自己与一群外交官的相遇经历,当时这个帝国非常强大,但在西方却几乎不为人知——中华帝国(明朝)。
当时克拉维约住在一个著名的城市撒马尔罕,他和他的团队在那里受到了帖木儿汗的优待。
1404年的一天,一群外交官从东方来,来自一个“未知”的地方。他们长相不同,衣着也不同。
他们来到帖木儿的宫殿,质问他为什么连续七年不向他们的帝国进贡,并告诉他要尽快向帝国缴纳他拖延的所有进贡,他们的语气非常强硬。
他们是谁?他们来自哪里?谁派他们来的?他们为什么来这里?克拉维约随后发现了一件令人震惊的事情。
帖木儿王朝是1380年代和1390年代中国明朝的附庸国。1396 年,当帖木儿决定第二次向西方发动征服时,他绑架了所有外国使节,并切断了与中华帝国的外交关系。这让中国皇帝非常愤怒,并派使节来到这里,要求他尽快缴纳七年来拖延的所有贡品。

Yongle Emperor of Ming Dynasty
Clavijo was totally shocked by this.
We, the European crusades were easily defeated by the Ottomans Empire.
The Ottomans Empire was ass-kicked by the Timurid Dynasty.
And Timurid Dynasty… was a tributary of another powerful Empire that I don’t even know much about except Marco Polo’s records?
Holy crap.
What happened next?
Timur refused Chinese Emperor’s “order” and humiliated his diplomats with words (He said that “Himself will bring these tributes to China” which means he will conquer China one day) . He then wanted to start an invasion towards China, but he suddenly died in the next year due to an acute disease.
After the sudden death of Timur, the Timurid Dynasty soon collapsed and became chaotic. Clavijo left the Empire.
In 1413, one year after Clavijo passed away in Castile, the new Khan of Timurid Dynasty Shah Rukh[15] restored the diplomatic relation with China and restarted to pay an annual tributes to Chinese Empire.
Clavijo’s records was only the second time that an European person has left a detailed report of Interactions with Chinese people and China since Marco Polo.

大明永乐皇帝(链接)
克拉维约对此感到非常震惊。
我们欧洲十字军被奥斯曼帝国轻易击败。
奥斯曼帝国被帖木儿王朝打得落花流水。
而帖木儿王朝... 是另一个强大帝国的附庸国,除了马可波罗的记录,我对这个帝国知之甚少?
天哪。
接下来发生了什么?
帖木儿拒绝了中国皇帝的“命令”,用言语羞辱他的外交官(他说“他自己会把这些贡品带到中国”,意思是他有一天会征服中国)。然后他想对中国发动入侵,但他在第二年因急病而突然去世。
帖木儿突然去世后,帖木儿王朝很快崩溃,陷入混乱。克拉维约离开了帝国。
1413年,即克拉维约在卡斯蒂利亚去世一年后,帖木儿王朝的新大汗沙鲁恢复了与中国的外交关系,并重新开始向中华帝国进贡。
克拉维约的记录是继马可·波罗之后,欧洲人第二次详细记录的与中国人及中国的交往历史。

Kokwai Thong
What are some events in Chinese history that were not recorded in Chinese official historical records, but were uncovered in historical records of other countries?
If we look at history, some incidents which occurred in China but was perpetrated by foreigners were simply not recorded in China’s historical records simply because at the time, they were not aware of it or because it was a piece of history which they did not wish to embellish. We can probably illustrate by some examples.
The Tea Trade.
Part of this history is ‘The great tea robbery: how the British stole China’s secrets and seeds – and broke its monopoly on the brew’. England had a great affair with tea in the past and until 170 years ago, the only serious producer and exporter of tea was China and its virtual monopoly was sabotaged – by Britain. Tea remains the most popular drink in the world after water and the global market is forecast to reach US$47.2 billion by 2020. Market growth is largely attributed to the increasing popularity of green tea, which is perceived as having personal health benefits, but in the 19th century it was the health of an entire nation that was at stake because the English fell in love with tea drinking over the past two centuries.

中国历史上有哪些事件没有被记录在中国官方的历史记录中,但在其他国家的历史记录中却被发现?
如果我们回顾历史,有些发生在中国但由外国人犯下的事件根本没有被记录在中国的历史记录中,仅仅是因为当时他们不知道,或者因为这是一段他们不想修饰的历史。我们可以通过一些例子来说明。
茶叶贸易。
这段历史的一部分是“茶叶大盗:英国人如何窃取中国的秘密和种子——并打破其对茶叶的垄断”。英国过去与茶叶有着密切的关系,直到170年前,唯一重要的茶叶生产国和出口国是中国,而其事实上的垄断地位被英国破坏了。茶仍然是继水之后世界上最受欢迎的饮料,预计到 2020 年全球市场规模将达到472亿美元。市场增长主要归因于绿茶越来越受欢迎,人们认为绿茶有利于个人健康,但在19世纪,整个国家的健康都受到威胁,因为英国人在过去两个世纪里爱上了喝茶。

The Culture and Preparation of Tea, China (1843), by English artist Thomas Allom.
Tea changed the role of China on the world stage, because the tea trade gave birth to the colonial territory of Hong Kong – tea drove economic expansion of the British empire in the Far East and Britain’s economy became dependent on tea, which had been a drain on the silver of Britain. As most in Hong Kong are aware, it was to balance its trading account and pay for the tea that the East India Company first began importing opium to China which we will also describe later.
The guy, a plant hunter, a gardener, a thief, and a spy was Robert Fortune who was responsible for having taken quite a few plants from China to the west including the cumquat, a climbing double yellow rose ('Fortune's Double Yellow' (syn. Gold of Ophir) which proved a failure in England's climate) and many varieties of tree peonies, azaleas and chrysanthemums. A climbing white rose that he brought back from China in 1850, believed to be a natural cross between Rosa laevigata and R. banksiae, was dubbed R. fortuniana (syn. R. fortuneana) in his honor. This rose, too, proved a failure in England, preferring warmer climates. Today, both of these roses are still widely grown by antique rose fanciers in mild winter regions. Rosa fortuniana also serves as a valuable root stock in Australia and the southern regions of the United States.

《茶文化及其制备》,中国(1843 年),英国艺术家托马斯·阿隆创作。
茶改变了中国在世界舞台上的角色,因为茶叶贸易催生了香港这个殖民地——茶叶推动了大英帝国在远东的经济扩张,英国经济开始依赖茶叶,而茶叶曾大量消耗了英国的白银。香港大多数人都知道,东印度公司最初向中国出口鸦片是为了平衡贸易并支付茶叶费用,我们也将在后面描述。
这个人是罗伯特·福琼,他是一名植物猎人、园丁、小偷和间谍,他负责将不少植物从中国带到西方,包括金橘、攀缘重瓣黄玫瑰(“福琼黄玫瑰”(同义词:俄斐金),在英国的气候下失败了)和多种牡丹、杜鹃花和菊花。 1850 年,他从中国带回了一株攀缘白玫瑰,被认为是金樱子和木香花的自然杂交品种,为了纪念他,他给它取名为福琼尼亚玫瑰(同义词 R. fortuneana)。这种玫瑰在英国也遭遇失败,因为它更喜欢温暖的气候。如今,这两种玫瑰仍然被古老的玫瑰爱好者在冬季气候温和的地区广泛种植。Rosa fortuniana 也是澳大利亚和美国南部地区的一种宝贵的根茎植物。

In 1848, the British East India Company sent Robert Fortune on a trip to China's interior, an area forbidden to foreigners. Fortune's mission was to steal the secrets of tea horticulture and manufacturing. The Scotsman donned a disguise and headed into the Wu Si Shan hills ( I think this refers to the Wuyi mountains near xiamen) in a bold act of corporate espionage. Fortune employed many different means to steal tea plants and seedlings, property of the Chinese empire. He is also known for his use of Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward's portable Wardian glass bottled cases to sustain the plants. Using these small greenhouses, Fortune introduced 20,000 tea plants and seedlings to the Darjeeling region of India. He also illegally brought a group of trained Chinese tea workers who would facilitate the production of tea leaves.
Read more: The Great British Tea Heist
Which brings us to the Opium Trade.
Lots of people know about the Opium Wars but what people do not know is how it destroyed a nation by its scale. As a contrast, we can look at statistics from USA in which opioid overdoses killed some 47,600 in 2017 and 42,000 in 2016. In 2016, total global opium production was 6.380 tons and some 53 million opiate users worldwide. But when the British East India Company used opium to finance their consumption of tea, silk and ceramics, the cultivation of the poppy in Bengal increased from 36,400 hectares in 1830 to 71,200 hectares by 1840 and 200,000 hectares in 1900; and with the jump in supply, opium prices fell significantly from 2,500 Spanish silver dollars in 1822 to 585 Silver $ in 1838, resulting in a larger proportion of the Chinese population becoming addicted to it.

1848 年,英国东印度公司派罗伯特·福琼前往中国内陆,这是外国人禁止进入的地区。福琼的任务是窃取茶叶种植和制造的秘密。这位苏格兰人乔装打扮,前往五台山(我认为这是指厦门附近的武夷山),进行了一次大胆的商业间谍活动。福琼使用了许多不同的手段窃取茶树和幼苗,这些是中华帝国的财产。他还因使用纳撒尼尔·巴格肖·沃德的便携式沃德式玻璃瓶箱来养护植物而闻名。利用这些小型温室,福琼将 20000 株茶树和幼苗引入了印度大吉岭地区。他还非法带来了一批受过训练的中国茶工,以促进茶叶的生产。
阅读更多:英国茶叶大劫案(链接)
这让我们想到了鸦片贸易。
很多人都知道鸦片战争,但人们不知道的是它是如何以如此大的规模摧毁一个国家的。作为对比,我们可以看看美国的统计数据,2017 年阿片类药物过量导致约 47600 人死亡,2016 年导致 42000 人死亡。2016 年,全球鸦片总产量为 6380吨,全球约有 5300 万鸦片使用者。但是,当英国东印度公司用鸦片来资助他们消费茶叶、丝绸和陶瓷时,孟加拉的罂粟种植面积从1830年的36400公顷增加到1840年的71200公顷,到1900年增加到了200000公顷;随着供应量的猛增,鸦片价格从1822年的2500西班牙银元大幅下跌至1838年的585西班牙银元,导致中国更多的人染上了鸦片瘾。

From 300 tonnes in 1800 CE it was 2500 tonnes by 1839, around the 1st Opium War. And after 1858 with the 2nd Opium War, China was forced to legalise importation of opium, such that by 1880, it was a humongous 6,500 tonnes imported into China alone! Just imagine it, world production in 2016 was only 6380 tonnes.
So while USA is now just having a problem with opioids, in China at the time it was a pandemic. Millions of Chinese addicts were killed whilst Queen Victoria was on the throne of England from 1837 to 1901, because by 1835, some 90% of the male population under 40 was obsessed with this pleasure –inducing substance.
Read ..Economic effects of the opium wars for imperial China, the downfall of an empire by Muge Kalipci.
It wasn’t just the British who were involved in this saga. France and USA were also getting rich with Chinese silver. The Americans sourced opium from Turkey and carried it to China via Canton and it was a source of great wealth for some notable families in the USA now. The Perkin clan of Boston, Samuel Russell of Connecticut who established Russell and Company and who recruited Warren Delano, the grandfather of president Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and Robert Bennet Forbes and Paul Sieman Forbes (does the Forbes name sound familiar?). Other names include Cushing, Perkins, Low and Green and these people provided the seed corn for the economic revolution in America. In Pennsylvania, there is a town named Delano and the Perkins family built Boston’s Atheneaum, the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Perkins Institution for the Blind as well as the first railroad in America to carry stone from his quarries to the Bunker Hill monument.

1800 年,中国鸦片进口量为300吨,到1839年第一次鸦片战争前后,这一数字上升到2500 吨。1858年第二次鸦片战争后,中国被迫将鸦片进口合法化,到1880年,仅中国就进口了 6500吨鸦片!想象一下,2016 年世界鸦片产量只有6380吨。
因此,虽然美国现在只是面临阿片类药物问题,但当时在中国,鸦片问题已经蔓延开来。1837 年至 1901 年,维多利亚女王在位期间,数百万中国瘾君子丧生,因为到1835年,40 岁以下男性人口中约有90%沉迷于这种令人愉悦的物质。
阅读 ..鸦片战争对中国王朝的经济影响,一个帝国的衰落,作者:穆格·卡利普奇。
参与这一传奇故事的不仅仅是英国人。法国和美国也因中国的白银而致富。美国人从土耳其采购鸦片,经广州运往中国,鸦片如今已成为美国一些著名家族的巨额财富来源。波士顿的珀金家族、康涅狄格州的塞缪尔·罗素(他创立了罗素公司并招募了沃伦·德拉诺,罗斯福总统的祖父)、罗伯特·本内特·福布斯和保罗·西曼·福布斯(福布斯这个名字听起来熟悉吗?)。其他名字还包括库欣、珀金斯、洛和格林,这些人为美国的经济革命提供了种子。宾夕法尼亚州有一个名为德拉诺的小镇,珀金斯家族建造了波士顿雅典娜神庙、麻省总医院和珀金斯盲人机构,以及美国第一条将石材从采石场运送到邦克山纪念碑的铁路。

John Perkins Cushing’s opium haul financed the construction of America’s textile manufacturing city in Lowell, Massachusetts. And Yale was built with largesse from Russell’s family. Ever heard of the Yale Skull and Bones society. Columbia University has ties with Abbot Low and John Cleve Green was a benefactor of Princeton University and Manhattan’s Hospital for special Surgery. Forbes financed railways such as Michigan Central and Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy. John Murray Forbes’ son was the first president of Bell Telephone and Abiel Abbot Low provided start up money for the first transatlantic cable, while Joseph Coolidge was involved with the Council on Foreign Relations. Forbes name is also part of John Forbes Kerry, previous Secretary of State, so you see how all this money makes its way into power.
Read ‘the China Mirage’ James Bradley.
China has since learned from this tragedy that she cannot shut herself out from the world and her humiliation due to her own arrogance was a wake-up call. It took the CCP to restore the unity of China after the demolition of the Qing Dynasty and the destruction of the Warlord Era before China could stand up again. So in some ways, it was a cycle of history that the Chinese will write into their book.
Thanks for A2A
I have decided to add another story to this question.
The revolutionary that China forgot. Sun Yat-sen’s lover Cuifen and her Malaysia villa.

约翰·珀金斯·库欣的鸦片走私为美国马萨诸塞州洛厄尔的纺织制造业城市建设提供了资金。耶鲁大学则由罗素家族慷慨解囊建成。听说过耶鲁骷髅会吗?哥伦比亚大学与艾伯特·洛有联系,约翰·克利夫·格林是普林斯顿大学和曼哈顿特殊外科医院的捐助人。福布斯资助了密歇根中央铁路、芝加哥铁路、伯灵顿铁路和昆西铁路。约翰·默里·福布斯的儿子是贝尔电话公司的第一任总裁,阿比尔·艾伯特·洛为第一条跨大西洋电缆提供了启动资金,而约瑟夫·柯立芝则参与了外交关系委员会的工作。福布斯的名字也是前国务卿约翰·福布斯·克里的名字之一,所以你可以看到所有这些钱是如何帮助他们进入权力中心的。
阅读詹姆斯·布拉德利的《中国幻影》。
中国从这场悲剧中吸取了教训,她不能把自己与世界隔绝,她因自己的傲慢而遭受的羞辱是一个警钟。清朝覆灭、军阀时代瓦解,中国共产党才恢复了国家统一,中国才得以重新站起来。所以从某种程度上来说,这是一个历史的循环,中国人会把这个循环写进他们的书中。
感谢邀请,我决定为这个问题上再加一个故事。
中国忘记的革命者。孙中山的爱人陈翠芬和她的马来西亚别墅。

This story is about China’s revolutionaries and a city in Malaysia called Taiping, one of the cities recognised as among the top three sustainable cities in the world.
Read more at Taiping is No 3 most sustainable city in the world
What will matter most on one’s deathbed? For Chen Cuifen, partner of Sun Yat-sen, it was a gold ring and a pocket watch, engraved with Sun’s English name. Hidden in a coffee mill in Assam Kumbang in Taiping is a “revolutionary” love story deeply embedded in the days of the Republic of China, the story of Sun Yat-sen and his romantic partner during the revolution, Chen Cuifen.

Beside the Aun Tong Coffee Mill is the Changchun Pu villa, looking washed out by the passage of time. A fan-shaped wooden plaque with the inscxtion Changchun Pu (长春圃) hangs on the building’s external wall, and a signboard with the words Aun Tong (安东) is prominently displayed above the door to the villa. Not far from the door stands a statue of Sun Yat-sen.
这个故事讲的是中国革命者和马来西亚的太平市,太平是世界公认的三大可持续发展城市之一。
阅读更多太平是世界第三大可持续发展城市(链接)
人临终时最在乎的是什么?对于孙中山的伴侣陈翠芬来说,那是一枚金戒指和一块怀表,上面刻着孙中山的英文名字。在太平阿萨姆昆邦的一家咖啡厂里,隐藏着一段深深植根于民国时期的“革命”爱情故事,即孙中山和他革命时期的恋人陈翠芬的故事。
安东咖啡厂旁边是长春圃别墅,随着时间的流逝,别墅显得有些破旧。建筑外墙上挂着一块扇形木匾,上面写着“长春圃”,别墅门上方显眼地挂着一块招牌,上面写着“安东”。门不远处矗立着一尊孙中山的雕像。
On entering Changchun Pu, one sees interior walls plastered with photographs, portraits, calligraphies, and newspaper cuttings, each with their own stories to tell. Apart from a few portraits of Sun Yat-sen, there is a colour portrait of a young Chen Cuifen hanging alongside a few black-and-white photos of her on the walls. Among the newspaper clippings on the wall was researcher Li Yongqiu’s article that Chen had travelled alone to Malaya in 1914 after breaking up with Sun Yat-sen. She stayed at Changchun Pu for many years and adopted a daughter, Su Zhongying (苏仲英).
The first owners of Changchun Pu was Chan Kye Choo (陈继祖), elder brother of Chan Peik Kwan (陈璧君). Chan Peik Kwan fell in love with the talented Wang Ching-wei (汪精卫, a close associate and active supporter of Sun Yat-sen) and married him. The Chan siblings were in close contact with members of the Tongmenghui (同盟会) that Sun Yat-sen founded. It was only natural, then, that Chen Cuifen made her home in Changchun Pu. Changchun Pu became the Aun Tong Coffee Mill in 1940, when Tiah Ee Mooi (程依妹), owner of the mill, rented the place to set up his coffee mill. He subsequently purchased the property in 1942.
进入长春浦,室内墙上贴满了照片、肖像、字画、剪报,每一面都有着自己的故事。除了几张孙中山的肖像,墙上还挂着一幅陈翠芬年轻时的彩色肖像和几张她的黑白照片。墙上的剪报中,有一篇研究员李永秋的文章,称陈翠芬在1914年与孙中山分手后,只身前往马来亚,在长春浦居住多年,并收养了一个女儿-苏仲英。
长春浦的首任主人是陈璧君的哥哥陈继祖。陈璧君爱上了才华横溢的汪精卫(孙中山的亲密战友和积极支持者),并与他结婚。陈氏兄妹与孙中山创立的同盟会成员来往密切。陈翠芬自然而然地在长春浦安家。1940 年,长春浦改名为安东咖啡磨坊,磨坊主人程依妹租下这块地,开设咖啡磨坊。1942 年,程依妹买下了这块地。
Chen Cuifen was known by many as Sun Yat-sen’s “partner in revolution” (geming banlv 革命伴侣). Her birth name was xiangling (香菱), and she was also known as Ruifen (瑞芬). She was born in Hong Kong, but her hometown was in Tong’an, Fujian. Being the fourth child in her family, she was often affectionately called sigu (fourth aunt) by comrades of the revolution. She was Sun Yat-sen’s confidante. The pair met through Chinese revolutionary Chan Siu-bak, who introduced Chen to Sun when the latter was studying in Hong Kong in the 1890s.

Sun Yat-sen is said to have had romantic relationships with at least four women during his lifetime. His first wife Lu Muzhen (1867-1952) selflessly took care of his children; his partner in revolution, Chen Cuifen (1874-1962), braved all storms and conquered all odds with him during his revolutionary career. The “Mother” of China, Soong Ching-ling (1893-1981), was often referred to as Madame Sun Yat-sen in the days of Sun’s reign; and Sun's second wife Kaoru Otsuki’s marriage with Sun, was only a brief one.

陈翠芬是许多人所熟知的孙中山的“革命伴侣”。她本名香菱,又名瑞芬。她生于香港,但家乡在福建同安。她是家中的第四个孩子,革命同志们亲切地称她为“四姑”。她是孙中山的红颜知己。两人是通过中国革命家陈少白认识的,19 世纪 90 年代,孙中山在香港留学时,陈翠芬被陈介绍给了孙中山。据说孙中山一生至少与四个女人有过恋爱关系。他的第一任妻子卢慕贞(1867-1952)无私地照顾他的子女;他的革命伙伴陈翠芬(1874-1962)在他的革命生涯中与他风雨同舟、共渡难关。国母宋庆龄(1893-1981)在孙中山执政期间经常被称为孙中山夫人;而孙中山的第二任妻子大月熏与孙中山的婚姻却很短暂。

Unlike Lu Muzhen and Soong Ching-ling, Chen Cuifen was not recognised. History does not remember her name, and her relationship with Sun Yat-sen was never made public. She was placed under a “political ban” to protect the images of Sun and Soong. Even when she passed away in Hong Kong in 1962, her funeral was miserably simple, without a single obituary in the newspapers, and her body was hastily buried in a Chinese cemetery in Tsuen Wan, Hong Kong.
Chen and Sun spent over 20 years together. Before the success of the revolution, Chen stayed by Sun’s side, taking care of his every need. Whether Sun was practising medicine in Macau, taking refuge in Japan, or plotting the revolution in Nanyang, Chen risked her life and did all she could to support his career. She cooked his meals, washed his laundry, and even delivered intelligence and smuggled ammunition for him and the revolution.
After the Qing dynasty was overthrown in 1911, Sun took centre stage in the political arena and said goodbye to the days of fleeing and hiding from his enemies. But it was not long before he again fled to Japan in August 1913, when his Second Revolution against Yuan Shikai failed miserably. During his asylum in Japan, he met Soong Ching-ling. Classy and elegant, Soong was 27 years his junior and had studied in the United States. She became his secretary. He was immediately drawn to her, and she was full of admiration for him.

陈翠芬与卢慕贞、宋庆龄不同,她不为人所知,历史不记得她的名字,她与孙中山的关系也从未公开。她被“政治禁入”,以保护孙中山和宋庆龄的形象。即使1962年她在香港去世,葬礼也十分简朴,报纸上没有一篇讣告,她的遗体被草草地埋葬在香港的一座华人坟场。
陈翠芬和孙中山在一起生活了20多年。在革命成功之前,陈翠芬一直陪在孙中山身边,照顾他的一切需要。无论是孙中山在澳门行医,还是在日本避难,还是在南洋策划革命,陈翠芬都冒着生命危险,竭尽所能地支持他的事业。她为他做饭、洗衣服,甚至为他和革命传递情报、走私弹药。
1911 年清朝被推翻后,孙中山登上了政治舞台的中心,告别了逃亡和躲避敌人的日子。但不久之后,1913 年 8 月,他又一次逃亡日本,因为他反对袁世凯的第二次革命惨遭失败。在日本避难期间,他遇到了宋庆龄。宋庆龄比他小 27 岁,优雅而知性,曾在美国留学。她成为了他的秘书。他立刻被她吸引,而她也对他充满钦佩。
Sun Yat-sen decided to divorce his first wife, Lu Muzhen, and sever all ties with Chen Cuifen. Chen, who was around 40 years old at that time, decided to leave for Nanyang for good. It would be close to 20 years later, in 1931, before she returned to Hong Kong and Guangzhou with her adopted daughter Su Zhongying, upon Sun Fo’s (孙科, Sun Yat-sen’s son) request.

It wasn’t until many years after her death that Chen Cuifen caught the public's attention. In the midst of xinhai Revolution’s 100th anniversary, people tried to put a name to the relationship she had with Sun Yat-sen. Was she his confidante? Partner? Concubine? Platonic revolutionary companion? Bodyguard? Follower?

There were so many clashing ideas about the relationship between the pair that the 100th-anniversary celebration of the 1910 Penang Conference (庇能会议) ended in two separate commemorations because the organisers couldn’t agree on the screening of the movie Road to Dawn (《夜·明》). The movie acknowledged the romantic relationship between Chen and Sun.
孙中山决定与原配妻子卢慕贞离婚,断绝与陈翠芬的一切关系。当时年逾四十的陈翠芬决定远赴南洋,直到近二十年后的1931年,她才在孙科(孙中山之子)的要求下,带着养女苏钟英回到香港和广州。
陈翠芬去世多年后才引起公众的关注。在辛亥革命一百周年之际,人们试图给她和孙中山的关系定个名字。她是他的红颜知己?伙伴?小妾?柏拉图式的革命伙伴?保镖?追随者?
关于两人关系的争论非常激烈,1910 年槟城会议 100 周年纪念活动(庇能会议)最终以两次独立的纪念活动告终,因为主办方无法就电影《夜·明》的放映达成一致。这部电影承认了陈翠芬和孙中山之间的爱情关系。

It was not only a dispute amongst the organisers. Descendants of the Sun family who attended the commemorative event were also split into two camps. One side acknowledged Chen’s relationship with Sun, seeking to restore Chen’s rightful position as one of Sun’s partners, while the other camp refused to do so, wanting to uphold Sun Yat-sen and Soong Ching-ling’s historical image at all costs.

Su Zhongying’s son, Sun Bisheng, reported that Chen Cuifen’s name has been added into the Sun genealogy as Sun Yat-sen’s concubine. Her tomb has also been relocated from Hong Kong to the Sun family burial plot at Cuihengcun (翠亨村) in Guangzhou. This relocation was said to be Sun Tse-ping’s (孙治平, 1913-2005, the grandson of Sun Yat-sen and his first wife, Lu Muzhen) final wish before he passed away.
It is evident that Chen Cuifen was Sun Yat-sen’s concubine, as evidenced by his letters. Writing to his daughters, Sun Yan (孙娫) and Sun Wan (孙婉), in a letter dated December 1910, Sun clearly addressed Lu Muzhen and Chen Cuifen as their “two mothers”.
争议不仅在于主办方之间,参加纪念活动的孙家后裔也分成两派,一方承认陈与孙的关系,希望恢复陈作为孙中山伙伴之一的合法地位;另一方则拒绝,不惜一切代价维护孙中山和宋庆龄的历史形象。
苏仲英之子孙必胜透露,陈翠芬的名字已作为孙中山的妾名加入孙家谱,其墓地也由香港迁至广州翠亨村孙家墓地。据说,这是孙治平(1913-2005,孙中山与原配卢慕贞之孙)生前最后的遗愿。
陈翠芬是孙中山的妾,这一点从他的信函中可以明显看出。1910年12月,孙中山在写给女儿孙娫、孙婉的信中,明确称呼卢慕贞和陈翠芬为“二母”。
While Sun Tse-ping didn’t forget to acknowledge Chen Cuifen, Sun Sui-ying (孙穗英), Sun Fo’s eldest daughter, was adamant. She insisted on defending Soong Ching-ling’s image as the “Mother” of China. In 2010, although Sun Sui-ying was unable to attend the commemoration of the 1910 Penang Conference due to advanced age, she made her presence felt. She instructed her son, Dr Lin Shanli (林山立), to denounce all claims that Chen Cuifen and Sun Yat-sen were once in a relationship, insisting that Chen was just a “partner in revolution” acting as a “cover” for Sun to keep his actions out of sight from potential enemies. Sun Sui-ying’s actions were not without reason. She was on close terms with Soong Ching-ling, who solemnised her wedding.

The surrender
In 1915, Sun Yat-sen married Soong Ching-ling in Japan. Ten years later, Sun passed away and was laid to rest in the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in 1929. Throughout this period of time, Chen Cuifen never once left Nanyang, and she wouldn’t have left at all if not for Sun Fo’s invitation.
Chen Cuifen spent her golden years living with her daughter and son-in-law. Sun Bisheng once told the media that Chen Cuifen passed away in his embrace on 21 October 1962. As she lay dying, she passed him a gold ring and a pocket watch, the two items she had most treasured throughout her life. The pocket watch had Sun Yat-sen’s English name engraved on it and was the only keepsake he gave her. She finally let him go and breathed her last.

孙子平不忘表扬陈翠芬,但孙科长女孙穗英却态度坚决,坚持维护宋庆龄“国母”形象。2010年,孙穗英虽然因年事已高未能出席1910年槟城会议纪念活动,但仍在场。她嘱咐儿子林山立驳斥一切有关陈翠芬与孙中山关系的说法,坚称陈翠芬只是孙中山的“革命伙伴”,为他提供掩护,避免被敌人发现。孙穗英这样做并非毫无道理,她与宋庆龄关系密切,宋庆龄曾为她主持婚礼。
投降
1915年,孙中山与宋庆龄在日本结婚。十年后,孙中山逝世,1929年葬于中山陵。这段时间,陈翠芬从未离开过南洋,若不是孙科邀请,她根本不会离开。
陈翠芬晚年与女儿女婿生活在一起。孙必胜曾对媒体表示,陈翠芬于1962年10月21日在他怀里逝世。临终时,她将一枚金戒指和一块怀表交给他,这是她一生最珍爱的两件东西。怀表上刻有孙中山的英文名字,是他给她的唯一纪念品。她终于放手,咽下了最后一口气。

Yu Song
That kind of thing happens everywhere.
Like a person who might remember something you did to him twenty years before while you can not, since the event, in your point of view, was mush less important than that in his.
Different people have different feelings on different things in different cases, so they record different historical events by priorities respectively.
Chinese history focused on recording accounts from view of the central government, what did the emperor say on something, what did prime minister suggest, when did General A defeat barbaric tribe X, and so on. No suprise it would miss some event which were minor or happened in a remote region from the empire, while the neighbouring or related country did record it in their history.
Chinese history is known as longest recorded and most detailed, but not complete or non-missing.

这种事情到处都有。
就像一个人可能记得你二十年前对他做的事,而你却记不住,因为在你看来,这件事在他看来远没有那么重要。
不同的人对不同的事情有不同的感受,所以他们根据不同的优先顺序记录不同的历史事件。
中国历史侧重于从中央政府的角度记录,皇帝对某件事说了什么,宰相有什么建议,将军A什么时候打败了野蛮的X部落,等等。毫不奇怪,它会错过一些很小的事件或发生在帝国偏远地区的事件,而邻国或相关国家确实在历史上记录了这些事件。
中国历史被称为有记载的最长和最详细的,但并不完整或没有缺失。

Al Aw
In my opinion,I would rather ask what are the official historical Chinese records written by others countries especially western nations that are not covered by the Chinese historical documentation.China only opened their doors to China during late Ching dynasty, but by then China had already recorded their presence and exploration as far as Mexico.Therfore,ones should based history on accuracy and factual relics on past historical findings of an ancient state rather than on mighty conquest and reedition.
China would certainly be the first country ever had a long ,continuous and unbroken proper records of their past civilised historical events since they first invented printing and paper.Not forgetting that even before paper they had bamboos stripes to rely on.Further more, an old adage saying that history belong to conquerors would not apply in Chinese case. AS a traditional big state nation,China was never been uprooted completely and decimated since its finding. ,Even in early century, those western allies and even Japan later could only managed conquered and controlled part but not whole China.As such .events and documentations could never be completely be controlled ,re-edited and destroyed.Most important of all,since early civilisation,Chinese has always emphasised on documentation and records as they easily would be the first civilisation nation that have a effective civil service bureau on state governance.For your information, a thousand years ago ,Chinese even have a Shima family( over few generation),who been famous and highly respected for their accurate and ancient historical publishing In their time.
For instant since mid nineties,Chinese territories been subjugated or transferred .That’ the reason now China is claiming their historical ninety dash line in South China Sea now as they could not afford to even keep their territorial patrol in these boundaries during early decade.In the meantime’s, others claimants to these China land offered little historical record of their albeit based on recent findings.

在我看来,我宁愿问,其他国家,特别是西方国家,所写的官方中国历史记录中,有哪些没有被中国历史文献所涵盖。中国直到清朝末年才向中国敞开大门,但那时中国已经记录了他们在墨西哥的存在和探索。因此,人们应该以准确性和对一个古老国家过去历史发现的事实为基础,而不是以强大的征服和重述为基础。
自从发明印刷术和纸张以来,中国无疑是第一个对其过去文明历史事件有长期、连续和不间断的正确记录的国家。别忘了,甚至在纸张发明之前,他们就有竹条可以依靠。此外,一句古老的谚语说“历史属于征服者”,这在中国并不适用。作为一个传统的大国,中国自建国以来从未被彻底连根拔起和摧毁过。即使在世纪初,那些西方盟友,甚至后来的日本,也只能征服和控制中国的部分地区,而不能控制整个中国。因此,事件和文献永远不可能被完全控制、重新编辑和销毁。最重要的是,自早期文明以来,中国一直重视文献和记录,因为他们很容易成为第一个在国家治理方面拥有有效公务员系统的文明国家。供您参考,一千年前,中国甚至有一个司马家族(超过几代人),他们以准确和古老的历史出版物而闻名并受到高度尊重。例如,自九十年代中期以来,中国领土相继被征服或转让。这就是中国现在宣称拥有南海九段线历史的原因,因为在最初十年里,他们甚至无力承担在这些边界内进行领土巡逻的费用。与此同时,其他对这些中国土地提出主权要求的国家几乎没有提供历史记录,尽管这些历史记录是基于最近的发现。

Ah Lîm
Definitely would have been interesting if Ming and Timur actually went to war. It would have been a war of the century

如果明朝和帖木儿真的开战,那肯定会很有趣。那将是一场世纪之战。

Patrick Koh
Won’t recommend, the logs lines are very long and costly; terrain harsh and terrible… Ming only want allies to maintain peace and security for the silk road. Qing wars against Dzungars must have been very hard in that awful terrain; 70 years!

不建议,补给线会很长而且成本很高;地形险恶可怕...明朝只想要盟友来维护丝绸之路的和平与安全。在那样可怕的地形上,清朝与准噶尔人的战争就打得非常艰苦;整整70年!
Chen Zhigong (陳治功)

Exactly. And considering that 1405 was around the time that Zheng He started the Great voyages, we may even have a naval battle between Ming China and Timurid.

没错。考虑到 1405 年是郑和下西洋的时期,我们甚至可能会看到明朝中国和帖木儿帝国之间发生一场海战。

Patrick Koh
Amazing story telling. Well, the Ming navy were super big once and ruled the Oceans, but they were not interested to conquer anyone but only maintain an established order …

故事讲得太棒了。明朝海军曾经非常强大,统治着海洋,但他们对征服任何人都不感兴趣,只想维持既定的秩序...

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