为什么中国人和日本人不使用刀叉进餐?
2024-06-08 不要可乐 11574
正文翻译



评论翻译
Stefan Åshäll
I asked this same question to my Chinese colleagues while I was working a month in Beijing. I think the quick answe I got was hilarious.
“Because it's uncivilized.”
My colleague answered without think about what he said, but then he looked at my surprised face and we both started laughing. It's as if he in that moment realized that the answer he normally gave to that question was quite dismissive of other cultures.
For one thing, he mentioned that knives shouldn't be on the table, as they are weapons. Sounded a bit like an afterthought.

我在北京工作了一个月,向我的中国同事问过同样的问题。我得到的快速回答很有趣。
"因为这是不文明的。"
我的同事回答时并没有考虑自己说了什么,但当他看到我吃惊的表情时,我们俩都笑了起来。就好像他那一刻意识到,他通常给出的答案对其他文化来说是相当轻视的。
他提到刀子不应该放在餐桌上,因为它们是武器。听起来有点像事后想到的。

ts
Devin Michael Roberts
Chopsticks are more graceful. They precut everything so you arent trying to cut a huge steak and somehow eat it with the fork. Instead just swoop in for bite size pieces. I respect that

筷子更为优雅。他们将食物提前切好,这样你就不用试图用叉子切一大块牛排,然后再用叉子吃。反而,可以直接拿起一口大小的食物。我尊重这种做法。

t
Kenzo Variant
What it means is, to serve guest or anyone dining, meat or anything else should be served in small pieces.
To serve meat as a whole to ancient Chinese looks uncultured and it is also rude to your guest in asking them to cut the meat himself at dining table. Guest should be served well, no effort should be required from him.

这意味着,对待客人或任何用餐的人,肉类或其他食物应该被切成小块。在古代中国人看来,将整块肉端上餐桌是不文明的,也是对客人的无礼之举,因为这意味着让客人自己动手切肉。应该妥善招待客人,他们不需要费力。

Aya Nakazato
Because it seems like a savage thing to do, to have a giant piece of meat (sometimes dripping with blood) on a plate, requiring a knife to cut.
You can usually serve the function of 2–3 different utensils with one pair of chopsticks (better than a spork!).
Wooden chopsticks are more pleasing to the mouth than metal.
Chopsticks take a lot less real estate to store.
…And in a pinch, you can even use chopsticks as a hair accessory. Just kidding. Don’t do that. But they are more versatile. (I do own lots of knives and forks. If you go to a steak restaurant in Japan, they would give you a knife.)

因为在盘子上放着一大块肉(有时还滴着血),需要用刀来切割,这似乎是一种粗野的做法。一双筷子通常可以替代2-3种不同的餐具(比叉勺更好!)。木质筷子比金属筷子更让人口感愉悦。筷子需要的存储空间更少。...而且在紧急情况下,你甚至可以把筷子当作发饰。开个玩笑。别这样做。但它们更加多功能。(我确实有很多刀叉。如果你去日本的牛排餐厅,他们会给你一把刀。)

Nicole
I never thought of this till i had a kid and he turned one. I was like “wait…this isnt right” when we are all cutting the cake and he is playing around there…i noticed this thing is more like a machete, just sitting there against the cake if someone wants more. Everyone in my family always did that, as long as i can remember. Somehow no one ever got shanked

直到我有了一个一岁的孩子,我才意识到这一点。当我们都在切蛋糕的时候,他在那里玩耍时,我突然想到,“等等...这不对。”我注意到这种情况更像是一把砍刀,只要有人想要更多蛋糕,它就靠在那里。在我记忆中,我家里的每个人都是这样做的。不知何故,从来没有人被刺伤。

Ramesh Bellur
Many of the customs people follow in various parts of the world have evolved over a period of time: people eating with hands, chopsticks and knife and fork. None to my mind can be claimed to be inferior or superior. The process employed has more to do with the food consumed, the ease with which it can be consumed and the tools used.
I live in the UK but having come from India I prefer to use my hands, when I eat Indian food. In March, when we were on our holiday in Japan, I used chopsticks to eat. After an initial struggle, I learned to use chopsticks well and really enjoyed the experience.

世界各地的许多习俗都是经过长期演变的:人们用手、筷子和刀叉吃饭。我认为没有哪一种可以声称自己优越或劣质。所采用的方式更多地与食物本身、食用的方便程度以及所使用的工具有关。
我住在英国,但来自印度,吃印度食物时我更喜欢用手。今年三月,我们在日本度假时,我用筷子吃饭。起初有点吃力,我学会了用筷子,并且非常享受这次体验。

Eric Mankin
This backs up to a curious and wonderful detail. Forks were not used in Europe before the 12th-13th century - Europeans could eat what was on their tables with knives and spoons. Then came the noodle, into Norman Sicily by way of Arabs. Oh dear, milady, I don’t know how you’d handle that. Wait: here comes a genius tinker with a multipronged device: it works with the spoon! Or so I’ve heard.

这引申出一个奇妙而有趣的细节。在12-13世纪之前,欧洲人并不使用叉子——他们用刀和勺子吃饭。然后到了面条,通过阿拉伯人传入诺曼西西里。哎呀,夫人,我不知道您会如何应对这个情况。等等:有个天才工匠带来了一种多齿设备:它可以配合勺子使用!至少我是这么听说的。

Jeff Boeker
Metal chopsticks are ubiquitous in South Korea and not rare in Shanghai or Beijing. They're considered healthier because they are easy to clean and there are concerns with the chemical treatments to the wood n wooden chopsticks.

金属筷子在韩国随处可见,在上海或北京也不罕见。它们被认为更加健康,因为易于清洁,而木制筷子则存在化学处理问题。

Liu Xu
But metal chopsticks are slippery. It would be too heavy if made short, or too slender to grasp if made long/thick enough to be comfort. I prefer wood chopsticks.

但金属筷子很容易打滑。如果做得太短,会太重;如果做得太长或太粗,就不容易拿稳。我更喜欢木制筷子。

Kob
I'm not sure what utensils chopsticks could serve the purpose of that a for couldn't. They can be used to pick up food, and used to stir food. Both of which a fork can also do.
I'm not sure about all countries but many I've been to use metal chopsticks in sit down restaurants.
Can't disagree they are easy to store.
This isn't to say chopsticks are bad and don't have a use I just feel they aren't better than fork and knife. Just good for different things. I could eat ramyeon, KBBQ, sushi, etc. with fork and knife but it would definitely be harder. I'd rather use chopsticks for that and the same goes for fork and knife I'm not going to try to eat rice, steak, sausages, etc. with chopsticks.

我不确定筷子能够起到叉子不能起到的作用。它们可以用来夹食物,也可以用来搅拌食物。而叉子也可以做到这两点。
我不确定所有国家都使用金属筷子,但我去过的许多国家的坐下用餐的餐馆都使用金属筷子。
不能否认的是金属筷子易于存放。
这并不是说筷子不好,也没有用处,我只是觉得它们并不比叉子和刀更好。它们只是用于不同的事情。我可以用叉子和刀吃拉面、烤肉、寿司等,但那肯定会更困难。对于这些食物,我宁愿使用筷子,同样的道理也适用于叉子和刀,我不会尝试用筷子吃米饭、牛排、香肠等。

Assistant
The use of chopsticks in Chinese and Japanese cuisine is deeply rooted in the history and culture of these countries. The tradition of using chopsticks in China dates back thousands of years, and they have become an integral part of Chinese dining culture. Similarly, in Japan, chopsticks have been used for centuries and are considered essential utensils for eating.

在中国和日本的烹饪中使用筷子的习俗深深扎根于这些国家的历史和文化之中。在中国,使用筷子的传统可以追溯到数千年前,它们已经成为中国餐饮文化中不可或缺的一部分。同样,在日本,筷子已经被使用了几个世纪,被视为用餐的必备器皿。

There are a few reasons why chopsticks are preferred over knives and forks in Chinese and Japanese cuisine:

在中国和日本的烹饪中,筷子比刀叉更受青睐有几个原因:
原创翻译:龙腾网 https://www.ltaaa.cn 转载请注明出处


Historical and cultural reasons: Chopsticks have been used in China and Japan for thousands of years, long before knives and forks were introduced to these countries. As a result, chopsticks have become deeply ingrained in the culinary traditions and cultural practices of these nations.
Practicality: Chopsticks are versatile utensils that can be used for a wide variety of foods, including rice, noodles, vegetables, and meat. They are especially well-suited for picking up small and slippery items, such as grains of rice or slices of fish. The design of chopsticks also allows for more delicate handling of food compared to knives and forks.

历史和文化原因:筷子在中国和日本被使用已有数千年的历史,早在刀叉被引入这些国家之前就已经存在。因此,筷子已经深深融入了这些国家的烹饪传统和文化习俗之中。
实用性:筷子是多功能的餐具,可以用于吃各种食物,包括米饭、面条、蔬菜和肉类。它们尤其适合夹取小巧而容易打滑的食物,比如米粒或鱼片。与刀叉相比,筷子的设计也使得更加细致地处理食物成为可能。

Symbolism: Chopsticks are often seen as symbols of unity and harmony in Chinese and Japanese culture. The act of sharing food from communal dishes with chopsticks can foster a sense of togetherness and closeness among diners.
Health benefits: Using chopsticks requires more fine motor skills and dexterity than using a knife and fork, which can help improve hand-eye coordination and promote mindful eating. Additionally, some studies suggest that eating with chopsticks may help with portion control and slower eating, which can contribute to better digestion and overall health.

象征意义:在中国和日本文化中,筷子通常被视为团结和和谐的象征。用筷子从共享的菜肴中取食物可以促进用餐者之间的团结感和亲近感。
健康益处:使用筷子需要比使用刀叉更多的精细动作技能和灵活性,这有助于改善手眼协调能力,促进思考用餐。此外,一些研究表明,使用筷子进餐可能有助于控制食量和减缓进食速度,这有助于更好地消化和保持整体健康。

While knives and forks are used in certain settings in China and Japan, such as when eating Western-style cuisine or in formal dining situations, chopsticks remain the utensil of choice for everyday meals in these countries. Ultimately, the preference for chopsticks over knives and forks in Chinese and Japanese cuisine is a reflection of the rich cultural heritage and culinary traditions of these nations.

虽然在中国和日本的某些场合,如西式餐饮或正式宴会时会使用刀叉,但在这些国家的日常餐饮中,筷子仍然是首选的餐具。最终,中国和日本餐饮中对筷子的偏爱反映了这些国家丰富的文化传统和烹饪传统。

Sarah Zhang

More than 2500 years ago, Confucius said 君子远庖厨, a civilized man/gentleman stays away from the kitchen. He also said, 食不厌精,脍不厌细, nobody will be annoyed by refined food, and nobody will be annoyed by finely cut meat. Meat or food in general should be prepared into bite size pieces before being presented on the table. People can then pick up the food with chopsticks or spoons. I am not sure which one came first, spoon or chopsticks.
更多于2500年前,孔子说过“君子远庖厨”,即有教养的人要远离厨房。他还说过“食不厌精,脍不厌细”,意为精致的食物和切得很细的肉不会让人厌烦。肉或者食物一般都应该在摆上餐桌之前切成一口大小的块,然后人们可以用筷子或勺子取食。我不确定是哪个先出现的,是勺子还是筷子。

Personally I think this is partially because the Chinese societies already has highly specialized workforce 3000 years ago. Butchers and cooks specialized in the food making process, so the upper and middle class citizens could afford to eat finely prepared meals. Upper class might even choose to eat this way to further differentiate themselves from the lower class.
Using knives to cut your food when it is already on the table were also considered being rude and hostile to your guests, because knives are weapons too.

就个人而言,我认为这部分原因是因为中国社会在3000年前已经有了高度专业化的劳动力。屠夫和厨师专门负责食品制作过程,因此上层和中产阶级的公民能够负担得起精心准备的饭菜。上层阶级甚至可能选择以这种方式进餐,以进一步区别于下层阶级。
当餐桌上已经摆上食物时使用刀具切割食物也被认为是对客人的一种无礼和敌对行为,因为刀也是武器。

xin Yun
Today we eat in the restaurant, perhaps a question: why Chinese people eat with a table and chopsticks, and westerners use knives and forks? From the application of this tableware can see what kind of historical and cultural background of China and the West?

今天我们在餐馆用餐,也许会有这样一个问题:为什么中国人用餐桌和筷子,而西方人使用刀和叉?从这些餐具的应用中可以看出中国和西方的历史文化背景各自是什么样的?

01.
First of all tell you, at the very beginning, our Chinese ancestors also used knives and forks, not chopsticks! what? Chinese ancestors is the beginning of a knife and fork? Yes, you are not mistaken, knife and fork is invented by our Chinese. Now the world's first bone knife tableware is found in China's Hemudu site in Zhejiang, dating back 7000 years. We can think about it. Neolithic people are basically living a rough life, and the best tool to deal with meat and meat is, of course, a knife. Therefore, the wise ancient Chinese knife was first applied to the diet.Only then, people used to call the knife on the table dagger. Modern dagger originally produced when used actually for the diet. Take a look at the bronze dagger unearthed below, it has two practical functions: First, equivalent to a spoon, the second is equivalent to a knife.

首先告诉大家,最开始的时候,我们中国人的祖先用的是刀叉,而不是筷子!什么?中国人的祖先最开始是用刀叉的吗?
是的,你没有搞错,刀叉是由我们中国人发明的。现在世界上发现的第一件骨制刀叉餐具是在浙江的河姆渡遗址中发现的,可以追溯到7000年前。我们可以思考一下。新石器时代的人们基本上过着粗糙的生活,处理肉类和食物的最好工具当然是刀。因此,聪明的古代中国人最初将刀应用于饮食中。只有那时,人们习惯将餐桌上的刀称为匕首。现代匕首最初生产时实际上是用于进餐。看看下面出土的青铜匕首,它有两个实用功能:第一,相当于勺子,第二,相当于刀。



In Pre-Qin time, the "dagger" is actually evolved from the knife, and later, with the development of food culture, the two functions separated, forming a knife and spoon. Later, "dagger" only represents the spoon, this word has also been extended to the ancient food, delicious. We have so far described the deceased mother as "妣", Oracle "妣" is "dagger", on behalf of the mother to cook.Tableware knife is the oldest in the history of human tableware, then there is the tableware fork. In our country northwest Qijia cultural sites found some bone fork, at least 4000 years ago. They were unearthed together, indicating that it was a complete set.
在先秦时期,"匕首"实际上是从刀演变而来,后来随着食文化的发展,这两种功能分开,形成了刀和勺。后来,"匕首"只代表勺子,这个词也被延伸到古代美食。迄今为止,我们描述已故母亲为"妣",甲骨文中的"妣"就是"匕首",代表母亲烹饪。刀具是人类历史上最古老的餐具,接着才有了餐具叉。在我国西北部的齐家文化遗址中发现了一些骨制叉子,至少可以追溯到4000年前。它们一起被出土,表明它们是一套完整的餐具。


To the Shang Dynasty, the fork into two teeth, but also compact. It was the same as the spoon and the bone knife, indicating that the fork, spoon and knife were three pieces at a time. Some sites in our Shang Dynasty, there are also unearthed utensils in tombs,

到了商代,叉子变成了两个齿,也更加紧凑。与勺子和骨刀一样,它们一度成为同时期的三大餐具。在我们的商代一些遗址中,也发现了一些墓葬中出土的餐具,都表明商代的刀叉是人们主要使用的餐具。


02.

So when the Chinese started using chopsticks it?In our country JAC East Longzhuang unearthed 42 bone 箸, as well as unearthed in Qinghai bone 箸, dating back 7000 years. But one is found in small quantities, can not be regarded as the utensils commonplace at that time in China. Moreover, according to our common sense of life, chopsticks are two sticks, who knows when people also take it for any other purpose.The earliest chopsticks in China are found in the No. 1005 Yin Ruins Anyang six bronze head. This is for meal. Therefore, the academic circles think chopsticks are used in the Shang Dynasty.


After slowly replacing the knife and fork, to the Warring States period the chopsticks became the mainstream of the table, since we Chinese people began using the chopsticks on a large scale, and the knife and fork into the kitchen, it is difficult to board the elegant hall.

之后慢慢取代了刀叉,到了战国时期筷子成为了餐桌的主流,自从我们中国人开始大规模使用筷子,而刀叉进入厨房,就很难登上高雅的殿堂。


Tiffany Cheng
Chinese started to eat with chopsticks since roughly over 2000 years ago. At first chopsticks were used as cooking, stirring the fire, serving or seizing bits of food, and not as eating utensils. Then, during the Han dynasty period, the Chinese began to use chopsticks for eating. During the Ming dynasty, chopsticks came into normal use for both serving and eating.
One factor that contributed to this switch was a population boom across the country. Consequently, resources, particularly for cooking, became incredibly scarce. As a result, people began cutting their food into tiny pieces so it would cook faster.

大约在2000多年前,中国人开始使用筷子进食。最初,筷子被用作烹饪、搅拌火、盛放或夹取食物的工具,而不是用作餐具。后来,汉代时期,中国人开始使用筷子进食。明代时,筷子成为了常规的用餐工具。
导致这种转变的一个因素是全国人口的激增。因此,资源尤其是用于烹饪的资源变得极为稀缺。因此,人们开始将食物切成小块,以便更快地烹饪。

Another reason why Chinese use chopsticks for eating is because of Confucianism teaching, Confucianism teaching said that eating with forks and knives is unacceptable because forks and knives are for fighting not for eating, fighting untensils should not be used for eating.
The Japanese adopted certain Chinese cultural aspects, so they also adopted chopstick as an eating utensils.

中国人使用筷子进食的另一个原因是儒家思想的影响。儒家思想认为使用叉子和刀子进食是不可接受的,因为叉子和刀子是用来战斗的,而不是用来吃饭的。战斗用具不应该被用来进食。日本人采纳了某些中国文化方面,因此他们也将筷子作为餐具采纳了过来。

很赞 36
收藏