英国大学敦促结束毒品零容忍,转而把重点放在减少危害上
2024-07-10 jiangye111 5188
正文翻译
UK universities urged to end drugs zero tolerance and focus on harm reduction

英国大学敦促结束毒品零容忍,转而把重点放在减少危害上


(Jeni Larmour, 18, who died on her first day at Newcastle University in 2020, after consuming a lethal combination of alcohol and ketamine.)

(2020年,18岁的珍妮·拉莫尔在进入纽卡斯尔大学的第一天就去世了,死因是酒精和氯胺酮的致命组合。)
新闻:

UK universities are being urged to ditch a zero-tolerance approach to drug use and focus instead on public health and harm reduction, with drug testing and non-judgmental support for students seeking help.

英国大学被敦促放弃对吸毒的零容忍态度,转而关注公共卫生和减少危害,为寻求帮助的学生提供毒品测试和非评判性支持。
原创翻译:龙腾网 https://www.ltaaa.cn 转载请注明出处


The warning came as new research found students are less likely to use drugs than those of the same age group in the general population. Of the minority that do, more than two out of five would like to reduce their use.

这一警告是伴随一项新的研究发现,与一般人群中同年龄段的人相比,学生吸毒的可能性更小而发出的。在少数吸毒的学生中,超过五分之二的人希望减少摄入。

Experts remain concerned that a zero-tolerance approach still deployed on some campuses, including fines, suspensions and expulsions, does little to reduce drug use and could deter students from coming forward for help.

专家们仍然担心,一些校园仍然采取零容忍的方式,包括罚款、停学和开除,这对减少吸毒几乎没有作用,而且可能会阻止学生主动寻求帮助。

Almost one in five (18%) out of 4,000 students who took part in a poll for Universities UK (UUK) – the organization that represents 142 higher education providers – told researchers they had used drugs in the past, while one in eight (12%) had used drugs in the past year.

“英国大学”是一个代表142所高等教育机构的组织,在4000名参加调查的学生中,近五分之一(18%)的人告诉研究人员,他们过去曾使用过毒品,而八分之一(12%)的人在过去一年中使用过毒品。

Of those who had ever taken drugs, the most commonly used in the past year were cannabis (53%), cocaine (8%), prescxtion drugs (7%), ketamine (6%) and ecstasy (4%).

在曾经吸毒的人中,去年最常用的是大麻(53%)、可卡因(8%)、处方药(7%)、氯胺酮(6%)和摇头丸(4%)。

Among non-students, almost 18% of 16- to 24-year-olds in England and Wales reported drug use in the year up to March 2023, according to the Office for National Statistics, while in Scotland, 23.5% of the same age group had used drugs in the year prior to being surveyed.

英国国家统计局的数据显示,在非学生群体中,在截至2023年3月的一年中,英格兰和威尔士16岁至24岁的年轻人中有近18%的人报告使用过毒品。而在苏格兰,23.5%的同年龄段人群在接受调查前一年使用过毒品。

According to UUK, only one in five students who have used drugs in the past 12 months have asked for support from their institution. Of those students who did seek support, nearly half (46%) said their university’s drug policy was a barrier, while more than a third (37%) feared the consequences of coming forward.

根据英国联合大学的数据,在过去的12个月里,只有五分之一的吸毒学生向学校寻求过支持。在那些寻求帮助的学生中,近一半的人说他们学校的毒品政策是一个障碍,而超过三分之一的人担心站出来承认的后果。

Jeni Larmour, 18, of Newtownhamilton in Northern Ireland, died in October 2020 on her first day at Newcastle University after consuming a lethal combination of alcohol and ketamine given to her “by another”, according to a coroner.

据一名验尸官称,来自北爱尔兰纽顿汉密尔顿的18岁女孩珍妮·拉莫尔于2020年10月在纽卡斯尔大学的第一天死亡,死因是摄入了“另一个人”给她的致命酒精和氯胺酮。

Her mother, Sandra Larmour, welcomed the report and said her own views on drug policy had changed. Where once she might have backed zero tolerance, she now favours educating and supporting students, though she said universities should never condone drug use.

她的母亲桑德拉·拉莫尔对这份报告表示欢迎,并表示她自己对毒品政策的看法已经改变。她曾经可能支持零容忍,但现在她支持教育和支持学生,尽管她说大学永远不应该容忍吸毒。

“If you tell a bunch of teenagers ‘don’t do something’, you’re on a hiding to nothing. Anybody that’s got children knows that – they’re going to go out and do it,” Larmour said.

拉莫尔说:“如果你告诉一群青少年'不要做某事',你就会一无所获。任何有孩子的人都知道这一点——他们会出去做这件事的。

“But if you’re doing something in an open and informed manner, that can only help. If you’ve got people there with insight, knowledge and professional experience that can give them guidance on it, and they feel they can come forward, that’s a very positive step.”

“但如果你以公开和知情的方式做某事,那只会有所帮助。如果你在那里找到了有洞察力、知识和专业经验的人,可以给他们提供指导,他们觉得自己可以挺身站出来,这是非常积极的一步。”

The SafeCourse charity, which was set up to promote harm reduction policies on UK campuses, welcomed UUK’s new frxwork for action. Its founder, Hilton Mervis, whose son Daniel died of an accidental overdose, said a zero-tolerance approach may have discouraged him from seeking help because of fear of expulsion.

为在英国校园推广减少伤害政策而设立的安全课程慈善机构对英国新的行动框架表示欢迎。它的创始人希尔顿·默维斯的儿子丹尼尔因意外服药过量而死亡。他说,零容忍的态度可能使他因为害怕被驱逐而不愿寻求帮助。

“Drugs left a hole in my family’s life because Daniel was failed by zero-tolerance policies,” he said, adding that the college now has a “clear harm reduction policy which puts the safety and wellbeing of their students first.

他说:“毒品在我的家庭生活中留下了一个空洞,因为丹尼尔没有遵守零容忍政策。”他补充说,学院现在有一个“明确的减少伤害政策,把学生的安全和福祉放在第一位。”

“Yet many universities continue to declare zero tolerance on drugs. In practice, this means zero action. This puts students at risk. The time has come for universities to adopt active, student-led harm reduction approaches.”

“然而,许多大学继续宣称对毒品零容忍。在实践中,这意味着零行动。这让学生处于危险之中。现在是大学采取积极的、以学生为主导的减少伤害方法的时候了。”

The UUK report, Enabling student health and success: tackling supply and demand for drugs and improving harm reduction, published on Tuesday, also calls on universities to promote and inform students of drug checking services. “Students often do not know the contents and strength of illicit drugs at the point of purchase,” it says.

本周二公布的这份名为《促进学生健康和成功:解决毒品供求问题,减少危害》的报告还呼吁大学推广并告知学生毒品检查服务。报告称:“学生在购买时往往不知道违禁药物的成分和强度。

“The consequences of this can be fatal. Drug checking provides an independent service which encourages students to have any substances of concern tested by chemists, and the results discussed during a consultation with a health professional.”

“这样的后果可能是致命的。药物检查提供了一项独立的服务,鼓励学生让化学家检测任何令人担忧的物质,并在咨询健康专业人员时讨论结果。”

It also suggests a sliding scale of warnings of increasing severity for repeat incidents over an agreed timefrx to ensure a university is not perceived as permissive about the use of drugs.

该报告还建议,在商定的时间框架内,对重复发生的事件进行逐步加重的警告,以确保一所大学不会被视为纵容使用毒品。

Larmour urged parents whose children are preparing to go off to university in the autumn to talk to their child. “Make sure that you’re open and honest with them.” To youngsters about to leave home, she said: “Be aware of your surroundings. Be aware of who your friends are. Think before you do anything.

拉莫尔敦促那些准备在秋天上大学的孩子的父母和他们的孩子谈谈。“确保你对他们是开放和诚实的。”对于即将离家的年轻人,她说:“注意你周围的环境。知道谁是你的朋友。三思而后行。

“I miss Jeni every day of my life. I think about her all the time. Everything I do, I do it for one reason. That’s to keep her name alive, to keep her name on people’s lips, to keep her memory alive.”

“我每天都在想念珍妮。我一直在想她。我做的每件事,都只有一个原因。这是为了让她的名字流传下去,让她的名字留在人们的嘴边,让她的记忆永存。”

评论翻译
Bokbreath
I'd like to congratulate drugs for winning the war on drugs

我要祝贺毒品赢得了毒品战争

SomeShiitakePosterNottinghamshire
It is inevitable. Drugs have existed as long as the human race, what arrogance to think that you will finally be the generation that eliminates them.

这是不可避免的。毒品自人类诞生以来就存在了,你以为自己终将成为消灭毒品的一代是多么傲慢啊。

WolfCola4
Absolutely - and what arrogance to think that everyone agrees with you that drugs should be eliminated. If everyone thought that, they already would be eliminated. People don't all enjoy the same things, and that's fine.

绝对是这样——认为每个人都赞同你应该消除毒品,这是多么傲慢啊。如果每个人都这么想,他们早就被淘汰了。人们并不都喜欢同样的东西,这很好。

TheGamblingAddict
There is a theory that drugs played a part in human evolution. Psilocybin mushrooms (magic mushrooms), were believed to have been used by Homo erectus which kickstarted the cognitive revolution which led to Homo sapiens, the exact mushroom in question was believed to be Psilocybe cubensis. This theory was based on studies by a gent named Roland L. Fischer. This is just one theory of many, the stoned ape theory I believe it got called.
Also a quick one, Professor David Nutt, was forced to resign from his job (2009 I believe?) after the Government (UK) had asked him to investigate the damaging effects of LSD, ecstasy and cannabis. Well they didn't like the results, turns out all three of those drugs, are less harmful than legal ones. Alcohol and tobacco ranked higher on the scale. They didn't like that one bit, forced a man to resign for doing the job they asked him too, all because they didn't like the results.

有一种理论认为毒品在人类进化中起到了一定的作用。裸盖菇(神奇蘑菇)被认为是直立人摄入过的,他们由此开启了认知革命,导致了智人的出现,而这种被质疑的蘑菇被认为是裸盖菇。这个理论是基于一个名叫罗兰·l·费舍尔的人的研究。这只是众多理论中的一种,我相信它被称为“醉猴理论”。
还有一个快速的例子,大卫·纳特教授,在政府(英国)要求他调查麦角酸二乙基酰胺、摇头丸和大麻的破坏性影响后,被迫辞职(我想是2009年吧?)他们不喜欢这个调查结果——这三种药物比合法药物的危害更小。酒精和烟草排名更高。他们一点也不喜欢这样,强迫一个人辞职,因为他做了他们要求他做的工作,都是因为他们不喜欢结果。

BartlebyFunx
Legalise the fucking lot and control it. Allow it to become dosed and kept in controlled situations. This would deal a massive blow to UK and global crime gangs. It would make the economy extremely strong and would see deaths plummet.

把毒品合法化,控制它。允许它成为剂量药物,并保持在可控的情况下。这将对英国和全球犯罪团伙造成巨大打击。它将使经济极其强劲,并将看到死亡人数急剧下降。

Wardendexe
Yes and the government can tax drug sales too, win win.

是的,政府也可以对药品销售征税,双赢。

soulsteela
Look at the American towns that have pulled back from the brink by doing this with weed, suddenly got huge influx of cash, local businesses growing, others selling it, all employing people and paying tax, leading to a general improvement in living and education conditions for an awful lot of people. Better than jail just because they’d rather get wasted on something other than booze. The illegal cannabis industry in the U.K. turns over more than £5 billion that could be invested in your local town instead of disappearing offshore.

看看美国的一些城镇,他们通过对大麻的处理实现了力挽狂澜,突然有了大量的现金流入,当地的企业在发展,其他人在出售大麻,所有人都雇佣了人,缴纳了税,导致很多人的生活和教育条件得到了普遍改善。总比因为他们宁愿把钱浪费在酒以外的东西上而坐牢要好。英国的非法大麻产业带来了超过50亿英镑的收入,这些钱本可以投资到你当地的城镇,而不是消失在海外。

___a1b1
Although things went wrong in Oregon when they decriminalised hard drugs for personal consumption.
The trouble is that consumption goes up when something is more easily available/marketed/reliable then that means you end up with rises in things like addiction, and addiction then creates a black economy of it's own (theft, homelessness, prostitution etc) as a percentage of users always fall into that hole, so bring in more users then that results in more people falling into the pit. The notion of spending taxes on treatment is flawed as addicts have to go through a lot before it really actually works for them if it ever does, so that means that they live in that underbelly of society with crime etc, so that might well increase due to more people joining the addict sub-set.

然而在俄勒冈州,当他们将个人消费的烈性毒品合法化时,事情出了问题。
问题在于,当某些东西更容易获得/销售/可靠时,消费就会上升,这意味着成瘾等事情会上升,而成瘾会创造出自己的黑色经济(盗窃、无家可归、卖淫等等),因为一定比例的吸食者总是落入这个陷阱,所以吸引更多的吸食者,就会导致更多的人陷入这个陷阱。将税收用于治疗的想法是有缺陷的,因为成瘾者必须经历很多戒毒措施才能真正对他们起作用(如果戒毒真的起作用的话),这意味着他们生活在犯罪等社会的底层等等,所以由于越来越多的人沦为了成瘾亚群体,这可能会继续加剧问题。

reckless-rogboy
Things went wrong in Oregon and similary in Washington because they stopped dealing with criminal activity by addicts, at all.
The first steps in a sensible legalization strategy are to apply the lessons learned from the booze trade. Licensed premises, controlled hours and restrictions on sales to intoxicated individuals all act as a behavioral nudge to prevent excessive consumption for the majority. Prosecuting crimes committed by users brings problem users into view.
Obviously different substances cause problems in different ways and over different timescales. Identifying appropriate policies and actions to apply to individuals in the ground between starting excess use and full blown medical detox is where the hard part is.

俄勒冈州和华盛顿州的情况都很糟糕,因为他们根本不处理瘾君子的犯罪活动。
明智的合法化策略的第一步是从酒交易中吸取教训。有执照的营业场所、有时间限制、限制向醉酒的人销售,这些都是防止大多数人过度消费的行为推动举措。对饮酒者犯罪的起诉使问题饮酒者得以正视。
显然,不同的物质会以不同的方式、在不同的时间尺度上引发问题。对适用于在开始过量使用和全面的医疗戒毒之间的个人确定适当的政策和行动,才是困难的部分。

原创翻译:龙腾网 https://www.ltaaa.cn 转载请注明出处


CloneOfKarl
Allow it to become dosed and kept in controlled situations.
It would make the economy extremely strong and would see deaths plummet.
I don't like the idea of making the economy strong bY LEEching off the vulnerable. That money would be coming from their pockets. Such a system should not be incentivised by profits.
How do you define 'controlled situation'? I'm assuming you mean that people can walk in off the street, pay for drugs, and use them there and then, whilst being monitored for sometime afterwards? What are the limits on this? Would someone be able to walk in again an hour later? How would personal tolerance be taken into consideration? Has any other country implemented this?
Don't get me wrong though, I think that any personal possession should be legal, and that people should have access to cheap drug testing services (if practically possible). We should not be criminalising what is effectively a medical condition.

“允许它成为剂量药物,并保持在可控的情况下。
它将使经济极其强劲,并将看到死亡人数急剧下降。”
我不喜欢靠压榨弱势群体来增强经济的想法。这笔钱将来自他们的口袋。这种制度不应受到利润的激励。
你如何定义“可控的情况”?我猜你的意思是人们可以在街上随便走进去,付钱买毒品,然后当场吸食,之后还要接受一段时间的监控?它的限制是什么?有人能在一小时后再进来吗?如何考虑个人的容忍度?有其他国家实施过吗?
不要误解我的意思,我认为任何个人持有毒品都应该是合法的,人们应该有机会获得廉价的毒品测试服务(如果可能的话)。我们不应该将实际上是一种疾病的行为定为犯罪。

spackysteve
Do universities actually care if students use drugs?

大学是否真的关心学生是否吸毒?

Blue_winged_yoshi
Universities don’t get massively involved in people’s lives outside. What a harm reduction pivot would enable would be a student to go to welfare and say “this is really embarrassing, but my friends and I got into coke and it’s started to impact my studies and I don’t want it to get worse”, and student welfare could then signpost to appropriate support services without any risk of disciplinary action. Zero tolerance prevents this conversation from taking place and that’s a bad thing.

大学不会过多地参与到人们的课外生活中。一个减少伤害的重点是能让一个学生去福利机构坦白:“这真的很尴尬,但我和我的朋友都吸了可卡因,这开始影响我的学习,我不想让情况变得更糟”,然后学生福利机构就可以向他们提供适当的支持服务,而不会有任何纪律处分的风险。(当前的)零容忍做法阻止了这种对话的发生,这是一件坏事。

TrustTheScience0
pharmaceutical drugs kill more, but you never hear a peep.

药物致死的人更多,但你从来没有听到一个(反对药品的)声音。

Ok-Comparison6923
Decriminalise drugs and you remove the contact with criminals for users. The gateway has never been the drug itself, it’s the connections and the network.
Also you can control the ingredients and make them safer. You can make them cheaper and tax them.
For people opposed to drugs, do you ever drink? Smoke? If you do, what makes YOUR drug OK but not other people’s?

将毒品合法化,你就消除了吸毒者与罪犯的接触。途径从来不是毒品本身,而是连接和网络。
你也可以控制毒品成分,使它们更安全。你可以让它们更便宜,并对它们征税。
对于那些反对毒品的人,你喝酒吗?抽烟吗?如果你是,是什么让你的“毒品”可以,而别人的就不行呢?

Firstpoet
Legalise drugs. OK. I don't want to pay for your related health treatments you need because of your choices, though. Compulsory health insurance, or you're on your own. Same with alcohol. Wasting resources in Casualty while a sick child is waiting?

毒品合法化。好的。但我不想因为你的选择而为你支付相关的健康治疗费用。强制医疗保险,否则你就得靠自己了。酒精也是一样。当一个生病的孩子在等待时,(因为救治吸毒者而)在急诊室浪费资源?

Ok-Buyer2600
Damn maybe if you just not take drugs it's never a problem. Pretty easy to not accidentally snort or inject expensive and illegal substances

该死的,也许只要你不吸毒就不会有问题。避免不小心吸食或注射昂贵的非法毒物是很容易的

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