为什么二战中的德国军队没有实现机械化?
2021-10-18 翱翔精灵 12684
正文翻译


为什么二战中的德国军队没有实现机械化?

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John Gilks
There are actually a lot of factors involved. First, nobody had ever tried to mechanise a force the size of the German Army on mobilization. In 1939 the German Army had 98 divisions and it would peak at over 250 divisions. The US Army never had more than 91 divisions and it took 8 million men to keep them going. The logistical tail of a mechanised army is long! The Germans couldn’t have supported the mechanisation of such a large army even if they had had American factories to supply them with vehicles.
Second, Germany wasn’t mechanised. Most Germans didn’t have cars. German agriculture was horse powered. The skills to operate a mechanised army didn’t exist.
Third, of course, Germany could never have produced enough vehicles for a 200 division army or the fuel to supply them.
So, having a highly trained and well led mechanised elite force backed up by horse powered infantry divisions was a much more practical and economical use of the resources available.

其实涉及的因素很多。首先,(此前)没有人尝试过将德国军队这种规模的军队机械化。1939 年时,德国陆军有 98 个师,最高时达到 250 个师。而美国陆军从来没有超过 91 个师,需要 超过800 万人来为他们前进提供服务。机械化军队的后勤负担很重!即使德国人有类似美国规模的工厂为他们提供车辆,他们也不太可能支持如此庞大的军队的机械化。
其次,德国没有机械化。大多数德国人没有汽车。德国农业以马为动力。操作机械化军队的技能并不存在。
第三,当然,德国不太可能为超过200个师的军队生产足够的车辆或供应它们的燃料。
因此,拥有一支训练有素、领导精良的机械化精锐部队,同时以骡马化步兵师提供支持,是(德国)对可用资源的更加实际和经济的利用。

Craig Kulat
Although America had just 91 divisions the amount of logistic support for each soldier was head & shoulders above everyone, even our allies. That point was bought up in the movie Battle of the Bulge when a fresh cake was captured having been sent from the U.S. to a soldier in the field. Germans ate pretty good during that battle from the American spoils of war. The amount of stuff crossing the ocean to Europe was awesome. Plus the arms & supplies we sent the Russians.
The Red Ball Express finally had to stop because they were wearing out more tires & trucks & burning more gasoline than the divisions they were supplying!

尽管美国只有 91 个师,但每个士兵的后勤支持数量远超所有其他军队,甚至是我们的盟友。这一点在电影“突出部之战”中被表现出来,当时德军缴获了一块从美国本土寄给战场士兵的新鲜蛋糕。在那场战斗中,德国人觉得缴获的美国战利品中吃得不错。穿越大西洋到欧洲的东西数量是惊人的。还要加上我们向俄罗斯人发送的武器和补给。
红球快车(译注:红球速递,1952年拍摄的反映美军后勤部队的战争喜剧片)终于不得不停下来,因为他们磨损了更多的轮胎和卡车,燃烧的汽油比他们供应的部门还要多!

John Jozsa
Military leaders, generals, etc.have all their experianves from only previous wars. So they can only plan on the bases what they know or experirenced. Nobody can know the future, and that is where they all have failed as technology has advanced.Unlike in ancient times, when the sword and arrow was the weapon for centuries if not for millineas.
Hitler imagined that tanks and some planes will make war a real “Blitzckrieg” But to supply a huge army 1000s miles in a land where there were no hard-roads, railroads unusable, and the mud, snow, freezing temperatures, not even to mention all the hungry wolves on the way. Nazi planner figured horses would have done well. The trouble was with that thinking that horses need to be fed, and to take feed for such a distance remained no chance to carry much else. So the German army starved and froze in Russia. It was much easier to beat them in winter. No logistic, NO army.

高级将领们只有从以前的战争中获得的所有经验。因此,他们只能根据他们所知道或体验的内容进行战争计划。没有人知道未来,他们都被科技的进步击败了。不像在古代,剑和箭是几个世纪以来的武器,如果不是数千年的话。
希特勒想象坦克和飞机将使战争成为真正的“闪电战” ,但在没有铺装路面、无法使用的铁路、泥泞、积雪、上冻的土地上为一支庞大的军队提供超过1000英里的补给,更不用说途中所有的饿狼(貌似指游击队?)。纳粹军队的计划者认为骡马会做得很好。但麻烦在于,马匹需要喂食,而在这么远的距离上提供饲料,那就没什么机会运输其他东西。因此,德国军队在俄罗斯挨饿和冻僵。在冬天打败他们要容易得多。没有后勤,就没有军队(译注:貌似隆美尔说的)。

Justus Ludolph Immelmann
There is in fact nothing wrong with horses as transport, as we speak Trump’s America uses horses to patrol certain parts of the Mexican-US border. Patton went into fits of laughter when his intel guys told him the Germans use oxen to haul the ME262’s around on the landing strip. What Patton did not know is that a jet engined aircraft uses a large percentage of the fuel in its tanks to taxi in comparison with a piston engined aircraft. So it makes sense to tow it with anything you can find, whether oxen or reindeer, because then you will have more fuel on board to fly.
Besides this, the German army was an army of extremes, it might have used horse drawn artillery, but it also dropped missiles on London in the line of V2’s, which the British had no way of knowing from where it comes or even hearing it before it exploded. The British for quite a while thought it was German aircraft which was shot down by the RAF.

事实上,马匹作为交通工具并没有错,正如我们所讨论过的,特朗普统治下的美国正在用马在美墨边境的某些地区巡逻。
当巴顿的情报人员告诉他德国人用牛在跑道上牵引ME262时,他大笑起来。巴顿不知道的是,与活塞发动机飞机相比,使用喷气发动机的飞机在滑行时使用了相当大部分油箱中的燃料。所以用你能找到的任何东西牵引它是有意义的,无论是牛还是驯鹿,因为那样你将有更多的燃料可以飞行。
除此之外,德军是一支很极端的军队,它可能使用马拉大炮,但也同时向伦敦投掷V2弹道导弹,英国人不知道它们从哪里飞来,甚至听不到它们的声音。以至于英国人一度以为它们落地时发生的爆炸是被皇家空军击落的德国飞机造成的。
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Bob Smith
Actually American divisions were fully mobilized. Do you realize America supplied Soviet unx with close to 400,000 4 wheel drive 2 1/2 ton trucks and another 100,000 jeeps?
By summer 1944, Soviet armies were almost fully mechanized compared to germans still using horses and trains. One of the reasons Operation Bagration was so successful.

事实上,美国各部门已充分动员起来。您是否意识到美国向苏联提供了近 400,000 辆4轮驱动的2 .5吨卡车和另外100,000辆吉普车?
到 1944 年夏天,与仍在使用马匹和火车的德国人相比,苏联军队几乎完全机械化。这是巴格拉季翁行动(译注:即白俄罗斯战役)如此成功的原因之一。

Evgeniy Naydenov
34.5 million people fought in the Red Army in World War II, 21.1 million in the Wehrmacht. If the Red Army and the Wehrmacht were the size of the US Army (a total of 100 divisions and no more than 2 million people in combat units), then the Red Army and the Wehrmacht would have had enough equipment by American standards. An artillery regiment and a tank battalion in each infantry division, a battery of howitzers in each infantry regiment, automatic and self-loading weapons for all soldiers, full motorization, first-class logistics, etc.

二战中有 3450 万人在红军中服役,德军的服役人数是2110 万。如果红军和国防军是美军的规模(总共100个师,作战单位不超过200万人),那么按照美国的标准,红军和德军的装备已经足够了。可以为每个步兵师配备一个炮兵团和一个坦克营,为每个步兵团配备一个榴弹炮连,为所有士兵配备自动和半自动步枪,实现完全摩托化,以及提供一流的后勤等等。

Brian Krames
I don’t know where you get your figures, but the United States mobilized 15 million men for combat in 1943 onwards during WW2. The U.S. had the longest supply lines of all the combatants. Reaching the Philippines, a MAJOR engagement in early 1942 and again in late 1944, was over 6,000 miles (NOT kilometers) from the west coast of the U.S. Okinawa was over 7,000 miles away from the coast of America, over 5,000 miles away from Hawaii.
Due to the insane logistics involved, the U.S. did a fantastic job of supplying not only our own troops, but the troops of Great Britain and the Soviet unx. The supply line to Murmansk was over 6,000 miles long thru U-boats and the Luftwaffe!!
Keep in mind the Pacific Theater was over 10 times the size of the ENTIRE European Theater. Trying to supply island garrisons scattered over 1,000 miles from each other was a HUGE task. Supplying 100,000 troops via naval support 6,000 miles away from any home base was a tremendous detriment. The Japanese were MUCH closer than the United States to most of their island garrisons. NO COUNTRY in WW2 had this enormous task and the U.S. did a great job with supplies during WW2 for our allies as well.

我不知道你从哪里得到这些数字,但美国在1943年就已动员了 1500 万人参加战斗。在所有参战国中,美国拥有最长的补给线。菲律宾在1942年初和1944年末的分别进行了一次重要战役,此地距美国西海岸 6,000 多英里(不是公里)。而冲绳群岛距美国海岸 7,000 多英里,距夏威夷 5,000 多英里。
由于后勤工作近乎疯狂的(努力),美国不仅在供应自己的军队方面做得非常出色,而且在供应英国和苏联的军队方面做得非常出色。在U艇和德国空军威胁下的通往摩尔曼斯克的补给线达到6,000 英里以上!!
请记住,太平洋战场的面积是整个欧洲战场的10倍以上。试图为分散在1,000英里之外的岛屿驻军提供补给是一项艰巨的任务。在超过距离任何(盟国)基地6,000 英里的海上为超过100,000 名士兵提供支援是一个巨大的挑战,日本人比美国更靠近他们的大部分岛屿驻军。二战中没有哪个国家承担过如此艰巨的任务,美国在二战期间也为盟友提供了出色的补给。
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James Roche
There were two issues with the mechanization of the Wehrmacht during WWII. first was industrial base of the German economy had the breadth, but not the depth to produce tanks, guns, submarines, and airplanes for the fighting forces. Producing more trucks and halftracks meant less fighters for the Luftwaffe or submarines for the Kriegsmarine.
the other issues is fuel. Producing 10,000 tanks a year like the Soviets are American without the necessary fuel to drive them meant you would have a lot of tanks sitting in depots doing nothing. Patton's 3rdArmy was halted, not by the Germans, but by a lack of fuel during the dash across France as he closed up to the Reich’s borders. Oil was the Achilles heel of the Wehrmacht and there was never enough for their needs during the last half of the war and it was Soviet oil deliveries plus captured French stocks that kept them going during the first half.

二战期间,国防军的机械化存在两个问题。首先是德国经济的工业基础有广度,但没有为作战部队生产坦克、枪支、潜艇和飞机的深度。生产更多的卡车和半履带车意味着德国空军和海军将获得更少的战斗机或潜艇。
另一个问题是燃料。像苏联人一样每年生产 10,000 辆坦克,如果没有必要的燃料来驱动它们,这意味着你将有很多坦克放在仓库里无所事事。巴顿的第3集团军被拦住了,不是因为德国人,而是因为他在冲过法国并接近德意志帝国边界时缺乏燃料。石油是德军的致命弱点,在战争的后半段,他们的需求永远无法满足,是苏联的石油出口加上缴获的法国库存使他们在(战争)上半场能够保持前进势头。

Paul Irving
Originally Answered: Why wasn't the German army in WW2 mechanized?
Mechanisation to the level of the British army, let alone that of the US army, wasn’t practical, for a few reasons.
Firstly, industrial capacity. Replacing all those horse-drawn carts by lorries would have taken up a lot of capacity which was being used to make weapons. The Wehrmacht usually had fewer weapons than its adversaries (from 1941 far fewer) even without such a diversion of resources.
Secondly, fuel. From 1941 onwards Germany was perennially short of liquid fuel. It had to build a lot of plants (more diverted industrial effort) to make oil from coal, just to keep things moving. Consider the implications of doing that on a large enough scale to fuel all the lorries needed for a fully mechanised army.
Germany was severely constrained by resources. Hitler tried to conquer Europe on a shoestring. There was never enough of everything.

由于一些原因,(要求德军)达到英国军队水平的机械化,更不用说美国军队的水平,是不切实际的。
一是产业能力。用卡车代替所有那些马车将占用大量用于制造武器的能力。即使没有这样的资源转移,国防军的武器通常也比它的对手少(从 1941 年开始要少得多)。
其次,燃料。从 1941 年起,德国长期缺乏液体燃料。它不得不建造许多工厂(更多的工业努力)以用煤制造石油,只是为了保持(机械化部队)运转。考虑一下在足够大的范围内为全机械化军队所需的所有卡车提供燃料的影响。
德国受到资源的严重限制。希特勒试图轻而易举地征服欧洲。一切都永远不够。
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Andrew Warinner
Beyond the obvious resource problems (not enough steel, not enough coal, not enough oil) mentioned in other answers, Germany had another resource problem, manpower: not enough manpower experienced with driving and maintaining vehicles with internal combustion engines.
Germany had about only 30% of the cars per capita as the United States did and Britain wasn’t far behind the US in vehicles per capita. So both the US and Britain had a pool of manpower who weren’t utter novices in operating and maintaining vehicles and internal combustion engines, Germany had a smaller pool and thus had to devote more time and effort in training up a cadre.

除了其他答案中提到的明显的资源问题(钢铁不足、煤炭不足、石油不足)之外,德国还有另一个资源问题,即人力:没有足够的人力来驾驶和维护内燃机车辆。
德国的人均汽车拥有量只有美国的 30% 左右,而英国的人均汽车数量与美国相差不远。所以美国和英国都有大量的人力资源,他们在操作和维护汽车和内燃机方面都不是完全新手,德国的人力资源池较小,因此不得不在培养骨干上花更多的时间和精力。

Gordon Allen
No army in the world with 200 + divisions was fully mechanized.The US topped out at 90 divisions, and the British around 50+.The Red Army was less mechanized than the German Army in 1941, and only became more mechanized because of a prodigious supply of Lend Lease vehicles.

世界上没有一支超过200个以上师的军队是完全机械化的。美国最高达到90个师,英国大约超过50个师。1941年红军的机械化程度还低于德国军队,只是因为通过租借法案供应的惊人数量的机动车(改善了这一点)。

Ronald Emmanuel
The germans simply had not transformed their industry to mechanize the entire army fast enough for 1939. About 1/3 of the tanks used in the attack on France were taken from Czechoslovakia and Austria.

在 1939 年,德国人根本没有改变他们的工业以足够快地将整个军队机械化。大约 1/3 的用于进攻法国的坦克来自捷克斯洛伐克和奥地利。

Patrick Nakasone
A problem for Germany at the time was they never really excepted the tents of mass production. They idolized the skilled craftsmen working at their bench making parts by hand to the highest quality.
For mass production to work each worker is effectively a part in the bigger machine of the factory. They only need to be trained enough to preform the tasks assigned.

当时德国的一个问题是他们从来没有真正开始组织大规模生产。他们崇拜熟练的工匠,在他们的工作台上手工制作最高质量的零件。
为了大规模生产工作,每个工人实际上都是工厂更大机器的一部分。他们只需要接受足够的培训来执行分配的任务。

Ludwig Nijholt
It was only very partly so, because a major war wasn’t expected until at least 1942. In the 1930s focus was primarily on expanding the armed forces and on armour and air craft.

这只是部分原因,因为当时预计至少要到 1942 年才会发生重大战争。 30年代的扩军重点主要是扩大军队规模以及装甲车辆和飞机。

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